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79 views

What evolutionary advantage do separate teeth have compared to a single piece of bone? [duplicate]

Humans and many animals have multiple teeth consisting of separate pieces of bone embedded in the jaw. For humans, this arrangement has some disadvantages: teeth are quite fragile when impacted and ...
1
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0answers
28 views

homologous recombination and non-homologous recombination ratio during S-phase

Can I assume that it is easier to do targeted gene knock-in in rapidly dividing cells because they should have a short period of G1? Is there an easy way to measure the relative amounts of homologous ...
27
votes
1answer
6k views

Are fully vaccinated people more likely to not get infected at all with COVID-19?

I've found some papers which describe that the viral shedding does not decrease during infection (for fully vaccinated people). But the overall shedding time does decrease. Therefore it is possible to ...
1
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0answers
59 views

I found this tiny transparent creature in my aquarium - what is it?

Please help me identify this 1-2 mm nearly transparent animal which I found in my salt water aquarium.
1
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0answers
45 views

Evolutionary advantage of the nutrient played by the chicken [duplicate]

What is the evolutionary advantage of the chicken throwing out so much nutrient ovulating all the time? Is there a clear advantage to this? Chickens ovulate all the time for the same reason human ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

Is it possible to assert who is the parent/child by looking at DNA sequence only?

Suppose I have whole genome sequences for two people of the same sex. I know one person is the parent of the other, but I do not know who is the parent and who is the child. Is it possible to ...
-2
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0answers
45 views

How to find a circumference in which a tree can provide oxygen

I want to make an app which will calculate oxygen rich zone around the tree. Say, for example, 1 banyan tree on average can have more oxygen within 2 meters from its location. Are there any already ...
1
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0answers
25 views

Why are we more sensitive to green light when 65% of our cone cells are red cone cells?

I read, "human eyes are most sensitive in 555nm which is green. Human eyes are more sensitive to green than to red, and in low-light conditions even more to cyan than to green." But it doesn'...
-3
votes
1answer
56 views

Why don't we use hybridization instead of PCR? [closed]

So, I would like to ask, why don't we use just DNA hybridization instead of PCR primer amplification to diagnise some illness? I know, when you have a really small amount of DNA from virus or cell you ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Explain why bones cannot undergo interstitial growth as cartilage does

I got a question from a textbook <<Seeley's Anatomy & Physiology Twelfth Edition>> that does not have an answer at the back of the book (only odd numbered questions do have an answer ...
6
votes
3answers
623 views

Limitations of 16S rRNA sequencing

Looking at the microbiome analysis literature there seems to have been a shift away from 16S rRNA sequencing analysis toward shotgun sequencing of the whole genome. While the motivation given is ...
-1
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0answers
30 views

How could all your Helper T-Cells have weapons against every possible enemy?

How could all your Helper T-Cells have weapons against every possible enemy? I tried to google it but found no good answer. Here is the source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXfEK8G8CUI&t=362s
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Can we view the cross section of dna using electronmicroscope?

Is it possible to find how the cross section of DNA looks using without computer simulations ? All pictures I find on the internet are mainly computer simulations.
2
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0answers
66 views

How does Propionibacterium acnes survive the antibacterial effects of sebum?

Sebum has antibacterial properties due to sapienic acid and oleic acid according to this article on sebum. According to the same article, desaturation of fatty acids increases acne development. ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

How do I classify cytotoxicity values, whether a sample is mildly, moderately, or highly cytotoxic?

I used LDH assay for cytotoxicity testing. I have a plant extract which I tested against HepG2 cancer cells. I did three trials, my results were 2%, 6%, and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. How do I ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

What is the mathematical relationship between selection coefficient and dN/dS

dN/dS is often used as a measure of the intensity of selective pressure on a mutation or gene, but I'm curious about how it can be written as a function of the selection coefficient. I'm specifically ...
4
votes
1answer
39 views

meaning of the name "Dictyostelium discoideum"

Dictyostelium discoideum is a well-known species of slime mould. Does anyone know what the name means? Here's my best guess. I found the 1935 article in which it was first described, but there doesn't ...
7
votes
1answer
91 views

How related are trees?

I was surprised to see how far apart macadamia and hazelnuts are from each other. I always thought all trees had a common ancestor that was also a tree. But that doesn't seem to be the case? Did wood ...
-2
votes
1answer
55 views

How many signals can one neuron send and/or receive simultaneously?

I've been researching this question online and finding opposing answers. Some articles say that one neuron can only send one signal at a time while others says that one neuron can send more than one ...
1
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0answers
43 views

Extensions of proteins in SARS-CoV-2 variants

What lineages of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 occurring in the wild show some extensions, i.e., mutations of the stop codons to codons encoding amino acids (mutations to another stop codon don't count ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

When recalling the same piece of memory in different times, are the brain activities different?

When we are thinking about the same piece of memory in multiple different times, would the corresponding brain activities always be the same? Or how similar/different can the corresponding brain ...
-1
votes
1answer
10 views

Do the activity patterns of an owl species determine their eye colour?

Recently I've been thinking about the colour of owl eyes, and trying to figure out if there is a pattern anywhere between species. I have read for example, that yellow-eyes implies they are day time ...
3
votes
0answers
16 views

What are the current theories on how baleen whales make whale song?

Wikipedia does not provide many details1 on how baleen whales produce 'whale song', saying it's still a mystery. The linked Gizmodo article provides these paragraphs: Humpback whales, for example, do ...
3
votes
1answer
500 views

What is this water animal in my swimming pool?

I have had a swimming pool (which is salt) for few months. 2 weeks ago I saw this: I made a quick gif of a video: Today, I found 4 more of this animal: All of them that are living I found in the ...
0
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0answers
45 views

Do transcription factors need to undergo extensive post-translational modification?

Some proteins need additional processing to become fully functional, for example NiFe-hydrogenases need to be cleaved by endopeptidases for some of their subunits to be active. Is it known whether ...
0
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0answers
40 views

Lowering annealing temperature in PCR

In the book "Lewin's Genes" there is the following quote: Lowering the Tm of a PCR reaction—in effect, relaxing the reaction stringency and allowing primers to anneal to not quite perfect ...
1
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0answers
39 views

What is the relationship between muscle energy consumption, the period over which the contraction occurs and the mechanical work performed?

I'm asking this question with some basic knowledge of physics and general fitness. Suppose you are lifting a still object with mass $m$ from height $h_1$ to height $h_2$ with an arbitrary (straight or ...
-3
votes
1answer
42 views

What is the primary purpose of the prefrontal cortex?

I've heard of many functions of the prefrontal cortex (e.g. creativity, working memory, abstract thought, inhibition, planning, executive function, etc...). But I'd like to know what its primary ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Can the hippocampus store working memory?

I'm a little bit confused about the role that the hippocampus plays in memory. I've heard that it stores episodic memories and then consolidates the important ones into long-term memory. My question ...
0
votes
2answers
83 views

The use of the word “canonical” in biological science

What is the meaning of the word canonical in a scientific context? This is an example that I do not understand: BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

What is this small brown arthropod? [duplicate]

Does anyone have an idea what this arthropod is? I first found one in the bath but have since noticed them on the walls, ceiling and on linen around the house. They are 1mm long, look brown in colour ...
0
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0answers
31 views

Determine directionality of backbone from electron density map

I am given a polypeptide with three electron density maps at different resolutions; 1.85, 2.5 and 3.5Å. And from this I am to determine at which resolution you could be certain about the ...
3
votes
0answers
37 views

What is the "anatomy" of transcriptional regulation in Archaea?

I want to know what are the DNA elements that are recognized by transcription factors in Archaea and so what is the "anatomy" of transcriptional regulation in this case. I found in this ...
0
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0answers
26 views

How can we explain that glucose at its concentration less than a Km for the transporter enters the peripheral circulation?

I'm studying biochemistry from Kaplan's book. In it, I found the following paragraph in the topic on glucose metabolism: "GLUT 2, a low-affinity transporter, is in hepatocytes. After a meal, ...
0
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0answers
35 views

What is the likelihood of two or more simultaneous mutations at different genetic sites on the same virus?

I'm asking this in the context of vaccine/immune escape. Apparently if more than one component of the virus is targeted by antibodies, it is difficult for it to mutate simultaneously in two or more ...
10
votes
1answer
3k views

Does every person have unique nervous system?

If we had the technology to directly interface electronic devices with the nervous system and we wanted to connect a robotic arm to a person that lost his/her real arm, would we be able to find the ...
2
votes
2answers
71 views

Definition of semiquantitative

I'd like to understand differences between how biologists and statisticians deal with uncertainty. As a concrete example, I'd like to understand if "semi-quantitative" can be defined in ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Identifying substance in body fluid (serum, urine)

I have a large number of serum and 24 hour urine samples from a collection of individuals on many consecutive days. Some of the samples contain a 'large' amount of a substance that has a brown color. ...
0
votes
1answer
96 views

Did Dinosaurs have a neocortex? [closed]

Did dinosaurs have a neocortex in their brains? If not, when did it come into existence?
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Why does the body lose enzymes over time?

I recently started my GCSE Biology course where I spend the next two years learning and preparing for my GCSE. One of the questions I have is that I was told that enzymes are recycled every time they ...
4
votes
0answers
55 views

Identification of huge larva in South Tyrol

On a sunny autumn day (19.09.2021) i saw a huge green larva crossing the street facing a wineyard. The picture was taken near Bozen, South Tyrol (22 °C that day). It is at least 14 cm long and 2 cm ...
0
votes
2answers
54 views

Do the genes for external viral epitopes mutate faster than for viral machinery (e.g. Proteases)?

To fight SARS-COV-2 we use vaccines which train our immune system against viral epitopes like the external S(pike) protein. Since these structures change a lot, would it not have been a better idea to ...
-1
votes
1answer
70 views

What is the meaning of harboring cryptic in below sentence?

Tissue culture became more widely used at this time because of the introduction of antibiotics, which facilitated long-term cell line propagation, although many people were already warning against ...
0
votes
1answer
88 views

Is it possible for a brown cat to birth an orange kitten?

I have a brown (cinnamon) cat, I assume her alleles would be b’b’ and oo. She was bred with either a black male (B_ o) or an orange male (__ O), or both if it’s possible for her to have carried the ...
-2
votes
1answer
49 views

Does Chewing Food Properly Ensure that we gain Less Fat?

We recently went to a fast-food corner and I was told by my sibling that even if we chew a burger properly(slowly) converting it into a fine bolus, then it would not affect the amount of fat gained by ...
-1
votes
1answer
32 views

Where is the location of cutin or cuticle in the plant leaf [closed]

Cutin's main role is to prevent the the plant leaf from water loss, cutin is thick in shape , but I need to know where is the location of it ,for example is it in the lower epidermis or in the upper ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

How can I accurately determine how much someone likes a sound?

I was thinking about this question the other day. My first instinct was to evaluate the dopamine levels before and after listening to a tune. I proposed this to my friend in the medical field, and she ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

How can more vegetation can result in more species diversity?

I am a high school student and I am a little confused. In my textbook, while discussing the longitudinal pattern of biodiversity they say one of the reasons is that "tropical areas have more ...
-2
votes
1answer
32 views

Why ions created in our body doesn't give any sensation of electric shock?

We know almost every cell in human body uses ions specially nerve cells , still why we are not getting shocked by those ions ?
1
vote
2answers
87 views

On the origin and evolution of vaccinia virus

I was browsing Wikipedia and learned that vaccinia virus, the basis of the smallpox (variola virus) vaccine, was originally thought to be derived from cowpox but was later discovered to be a separate ...

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