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1answer
39 views

Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase: reaction mechanism

I have searched the internet for the reaction mechanism of G6PD but couldn't find it, so I am asking whether anyone here knows its mechanism and whether they could recommend some sources that give ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

Where do the Ca ions that causes neurotransmitter release from synaptic bouton, come from?

I hope the information you share will help clarify the following doubts and gaps in my knowledge: Where do the Calcium ions in the influx (which then triggers the neurotransmitter vesicles) come from?...
0
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1answer
45 views

In DNA replication, are there phosphodiester bonds in the primer ? between the RNA nucleotides before being replaced

When hydrogen bonds happen between the RNA nucleotide bases and the DNA bases , do phosphodiester bonds form between the RNA nucleotides in the primer ? No source I read is clear about this, are ...
0
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1answer
18 views

When comparing oral infection v IV infection in mice, why would the CFU given be different volumes?

In the paper, orally infected mice are given 1x10^9 CFU of C. Rodentium and IV infected mice are given 5x10^7 CFU of the pathogen. Does anyone know if there is a generic reason for this? Thanks in ...
5
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2answers
95 views

What fills the space between the alveoli in the lungs?

Do the lungs just consist of a large tree of alveoli, covered by the pleura, like this picture: Or are they found "inside" the sac that is the lungs? If it's the later, what fills the space in-...
0
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0answers
33 views

What's the transposon difference between chimps and humans?

I was reading that humans and chimps share 98-99% of the same DNA sequence but I also read humans and chimps only share around 20% of the same proteins. Also, 45% of the human genome is transposable ...
1
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1answer
53 views

Could biofilms float and survive in the sulfuric acid clouds of Venus?

The atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide, 3.5% nitrogen, and traces of other gases, most notably sulfur dioxide. The main cloud deck is located in the 48-70 km altitude range and is ...
2
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1answer
67 views

How does SDS-PAGE separate based on mass?

If $F=qE =ma$ then $\frac{m}{q}a=E$, and in SDS-PAGE electric field and mass-to-charge ratio is all approximated to be constant for all proteins. Thus, all proteins must migrate with a constant ...
2
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1answer
28 views

I added ethanol to my TRizol RNA extraction

I added ethanol instead of chloroform to the cell suspension in Trizol. Can I still obtain my aqueous phase?
-1
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2answers
58 views

Is there a nomenclature for human physiology?

Back when I studied botany in high school, the teacher taught us the nomenclature for botanical terms. I think there should be something similar for human physiology. Understanding how the name was ...
2
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0answers
24 views

Why do muscle spindles send impulses at a constant rate when the muscle is at rest?

According to my book, the sensory neuron around the muscle spindle is sending impulses at a constant rate, while the entire muscle itself is relaxated (at rest). So when the muscle stretches the ...
-1
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1answer
37 views

Why do archaea survive better in extremes than bacteria?

Why have bacteria not evolved to fill the extreme environments to the same extent as archaea? What has enabled archaea to colonize these areas when bacteria do not?
1
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1answer
31 views

What happens to embedded membrane proteins after a vesicle is formed?

When an animal cell is going through endocytosis it cell surrounds a food particle, and the membrane swallows it, creating a vesicle within the cell. However, what happens to the embedded ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Genes where both a disabling mutation and copy number amplification cause different genetic diseases

I'm trying to make a list of such genes, because they must be tightly regulated. MeCP2 is one - it causes Rett Syndrome with a disabling mutation, but causes MeCP2 duplication syndrome if its copy ...
1
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0answers
11 views

How to choose an assay for detecting virulence factors?

When looking for a protein of interest, an ELISA is being administered. I read this article about the different types of ELISAs and the advantages/disadvantages. However, I am conflicted about ...
0
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0answers
10 views

Mendelian randomisation and covariates

I am using a mendelian randomisation (MR) approach to determine whether there is a causal effect of an exposure X on the outcome Y. To do so, I run a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the ...
3
votes
0answers
61 views

The emergence of Phengaris butterflies from ant nests

The butterflies of the Phengaris genus (also known as Maculinea) are known to be brood parasitic. During the fourth instar, the caterpillars leave their food plant and mimic ant larvae, causing the ...
0
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0answers
8 views

Meiotic recombination hotspots

Im trying to find a proper and general file with chromosomal coordinates for meiotic recombination hotspots. I know that ucsc hgtables, has a table with recombination regions and their recombination ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

What is indirect vs direction selection of genes?

As the title suggests, what is the direct and indirect selection of genes. Couldn't find a straightforward answer. Is it the same as direct and indirect fitness?
1
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0answers
13 views

Correlation seen with low billirubin levels but not the gene that causes Gilbert's syndrome

I was reading the following study on associations between bilirubin and CAD (coronary artery disease). They looked at the bilirubin association, and the genes that cause Gilbert's syndrome, which ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Trying to understand PAM matrices

If I have several PAM matrices all computed using different evolutionary distances, and I compute the score between two amino acid sequences, is the max score I get using any one PAM matrix the most ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Is slow growth a virulence factor?

Many slow-growth pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lentivirus, Rhabdovirus, Leptospira spp) are difficult to treat. In addition, a review of 61 pathogens found that slower growing ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

A theory about the possible connection between protists and first animalia

I learnt that organisms within Kingdom Animalia can be either microanimals or (nonmicro)animals. a microanimal is any Kingdom Animalia organism that in general cannot be seen by a human eye without ...
0
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0answers
9 views

How does lipoid pneumonia lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?

How does lipoid pneumonia lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)? The vaping illnesses that have been happening on the news in the United States are being caused by the federal ...
4
votes
1answer
56 views

What are the white eggs growing from a black stem on the Napa cabbage plant?

Are they fungal or eggs? Can't find anything like this in the internet
-1
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1answer
49 views

What is an allele?

According to the entry for allele in Wikipedia: “An allele is a variant form of a given gene, meaning it is one of two or more versions of a known mutation at the same place on a chromosome.” ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

What is the etymology for Pinus halepensis?

I have a problem of figuring out the etymology of Pinus halepnesis. An etymonline search with halepensis brought no result. It is unclear to me from the English wikipedia article and from the ...
0
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0answers
20 views

Similar smell for avocado and raspberries

I noticed when heating frozen avocado that the smell was just like fresh raspberries in the summer. Does anyone know what makes them smell so similar ? (https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-408117-8....
0
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2answers
102 views

Is evolution always unidirectional?

Is it possible, at least in theory, for a species to evolve into another species and then evolve back into the first species?
0
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0answers
24 views

Do pyrocalciferol and isopyrocalciferol form in vertebrate skin?

I heard that pyrocalciferol and isopyrocalciferol can only be formed above 100°C/212°F, yet some images in the web depict them as forming in vertebrate skin. So, I wonder if pyrocalciferol and ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What are reasons we know insects evolved on land rather than water

I am reading up on the evolution of insects, and insects supposedly evolved on land rather than water. How do people know?What evidence is there that insects evolved on land and not water?
0
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0answers
15 views

Question regarding aposematism

Are all aposematic insects chemically defended? Can there be insects that mimic chemically defended insects that are also aposematic? Any ideas?
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0answers
5 views

Why do neutrophils have segmented nuclei?

To clarify, I'm not asking what causes high segmentation in neutrophils. I'm asking how segmented nuclei function in a regular neutrophil cell.
2
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3answers
41 views

How many molecules of ATP are actually produced in aerobic respiration?

I have been through the process of aerobic respiration a few times in different text books and almost every book quotes a different value for the number of ATP molecules produced. The consensus seems ...
1
vote
1answer
11 views

What's the technical terminology for call-and-respond type behaviour?

The groups of some species such as water birds display a behavior that once out of line-of-sight a member will periodically initiate an interaction by make some type of sound, which will be followed ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Why do insects move so differently than land animals?

Why do the fastest insects have 6 legs instead of 2 or 4? Why don't any trot or gallop like a cheetah, for instance? I know that if a... cheetah were scaled down to the size of a tiger beatle, it ...
0
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0answers
11 views

Why is glomerular filtration called a non selective process?

According to Biology NCERT Class 11, Page 299, "Filtration is a non-selective process performed by the glomerulus using the glomerular capillary blood pressure." But the glomerulus filters out blood ...
1
vote
0answers
18 views

Are Hsp70 proteins only activated in response to heat shock?

Hsp70 proteins are chaperones that assist in protein folding in my plant physiology textbook it says the Hsp70 proteins were discovered by inducing heat shock. But do they only work in response to ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Help id mushroom found in West Midlands, Egland

I found this mushroom yesterday. It looks like an oyster but it grows in some poorly kept lawn. I am sure there was no tree there in the past. This spot was landscaped a couple of years ago after ...
0
votes
0answers
6 views

Is dyed cotton beeswax food wrap compostable?

I'm thinking of making beeswax food wraps for Christmas as an easy homemade gift. In hope that it will convince my siblings and in-laws to use them, I'd like to use funny and eccentric designs rather ...
27
votes
4answers
7k views

Is it possible to kill parasitic worms by intoxicating oneself?

I've heard of parasites that can live in the human body and do a lot of damage to the host. There are even safer forms of worm-like parasites inside the intestine, but some parasites can live in the ...
-4
votes
1answer
30 views

Share immunity by kissing?

How can you get a cold by kissing someone who already has it, but you can't get their antibodies by kissing them after they recover? Or can you?
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Trade-offs between phage and yeast displays?

If you wanted to test a peptide you designed, you can do a phage display or a yeast display experiment to assess binding affinity. What are the trade-offs between these two methods? I've heard ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

What is the role of increased cytosolic calcium concentration after firing, in neuronal cell bodies?

I've come across several studies in which scientists were investigating various questions related to neural activity by focusing on neuronal cell bodies using Calcium imaging. As this article suggests ...
-2
votes
1answer
24 views

What are the sizes of individual cells of the cyanobacterium Nostoc spheroides?

In this article Nostoc spheroids are described as edible blue-green algae, but they are mostly named cyanobacteria, which are prokaryotes. In the above and other articles about Nostoc spheroids only ...
1
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0answers
76 views

Which theory has more evidence, humans appeared in Africa 200,000 years ago, or there were already humans in Europe at least 210,000 years ago?

This theory Modern humans originated from a woman who lived in modern day Botswana says Every person alive today descended from a woman who lived in modern-day Botswana about 200,000 years ...
0
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0answers
5 views

Pathogen Modeling Program - Cold chain - Is there any model that allows you to change temperature at different times?

I am trying to predict the CFU (Colony-forming unit) or bacteria population size across time. There are programs where you can modelate the growing of bacteria and its population size through time ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

CD spectra of Porin molecules?

Can anyone please help me how will the CD spectra or graph of porin molecule look like. Porin molecule has 14 beta plated structures joined by some random coil, but it's very confusing to draw it. Can ...
0
votes
0answers
3 views

Why PCT stains darker than DCT?

Both PCT and DCT have Simple cuboidal epithelium in then, but PCT also has microvilli . But why do they stain differently. In histology slides PCT stains darker than DCT can anyone explain why ?
0
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0answers
28 views

A question about the clarity of certain terms

In the Red Queen's depiction, a population must evolve just to be able to survive its ever-evolving natural enemies. I'm trying to refer to a state in which many natural enemies have evolved adaptive ...

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