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2 views

Does the gas in blood remain constant when breathing? Is O2 and CO2 replaced by N?

Am a software dev and working on a non-scientific game that shall include "somewhat realistic" elements of the pulmonary system. Effectively I want to roughly model the exchange of O2 and ...
1
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0answers
16 views

How many proteins able to form prions that humans have have been identified?

The Wikipedia article on it seems to treat it as if there is only one, but I remember other proteins able to form prions mentioned in humans. How many proteins able to form prions do humans have? ...
-1
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0answers
8 views

Can G protein-coupled receptors mediate cell adhesion?

I am reading about G protein-coupled receptors, and I know that they are the largest group of membrane receptors in eukaryotes and are 7-pass transmembrane proteins. I am also learning about cell ...
0
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0answers
6 views

Connection between triploblasty and bilateralism

Looking at the phylogenetic tree for animals, it appears that animals evolved bilateral symmetry around the same they evolved three tissue layers (triploblasty). Is there a reason why three tissue ...
-1
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0answers
16 views

What does 'disordered' mean in the 'Family & Domains' section of UniProt?

I am looking at information about a protein called CD83 antigen on UniProt. On the page for the protein, in the 'Family & Domains' section, it says that between amino acids 60-81, the region is '...
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0answers
10 views

What actually produces the diastolic phase 3 Korotkoff sound while taking blood pressure?

I keep looking online for an answer to how exactly a noise can be heard during diastole when taking blood pressure. I understand that in phase 1, the force from the blood hitting against the pinched ...
0
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1answer
18 views

Cannot seem to merge the two circles of a microscope (biological, binocular)

I have recently purchased a binocular microscope (Saxon Researcher Compact Biological Microscope 40x-1600x), and have had difficulty getting the two circles of light that I'm seeing through the ...
3
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1answer
42 views

What is this bird species in the Pacific NW?

I don’t think it’s a Black Phoebe, as they have black beaks not white. Is it a Grosbeak? This was taken in the Pacific NW.. . Sorry for the pic quality. If this isn’t the right place to post this, ...
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0answers
27 views

What are the small white dots in an onion cell seen under an electron microscope?

We had to use an electron microscope in class for an assignment and used onion cells. On the 40x and 100x magnification there are tiny white dots and I was wondering if someone could tell me what they ...
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0answers
63 views

Is there a concrete metatheory that mathematically abstracts life processes (natural/artificial)? If none, how do we fix the showstoppers to have one? [closed]

In physics, Theory of everything "is a hypothetical, singular, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the ...
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0answers
36 views

Why can't viral -RNA act like mRNA inside the cell? [closed]

I don't understand the difference between +RNA and -RNA. Since they both have the same nucleic acids, how can the cell's ribosomes be used by the first and not by the latter?
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0answers
28 views

Help with observations in an experiment [closed]

Let's say I have an experiment where I want to find the effects of going into space on various single celled organisms. What are some observations I could make or data points I could collect that: (I ...
0
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1answer
41 views

Why is this bumblebee attracted to a methane leak?

In this video from Bloomburg Quicktake, the reporters discover at a methane well (Skip to 14:21) a GHG leak that has attracted bumblebees. Does natural gas smell sweet to bees? Why would the bees be ...
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0answers
22 views

Monoclonal antibody mass production

There is a long conversation taking place these days about monoclonal antibodies against COVID-19. From a few biology courses I had a long time ago, I remember that the process of creating mAbs was a ...
0
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1answer
506 views

How many drinks were consumed by each test subject in this study?

I was reading this study and came across the following line: ...subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹), 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with ...
-2
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0answers
44 views

Schematic of sequences recognized by restriction

In your lab, you need to splice 4 genes in a specific order. However, it only has one restriction enzyme at its disposal. Considering the sequences that speak the genes that you need to join, marked ...
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0answers
29 views

Can CRISPR knockout of a gene be referred gene inhibition?

Can gene knockout (e.g. by CRISPR) be referred to as gene inhibition? I am trying to use precise words for a manuscript. We first showed siRNA of a gene has effect X. We also found knockout of the ...
3
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1answer
86 views

How can a nucleotide falling *outside* a binding site affect a transcription factor's ability to bind to said site?

In this paper regarding a polymorphism within the AQP7 gene and its potential effects on one's metabolic profile, the authors use a luciferase assay to confirm that the alleles of this SNP have a ...
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0answers
30 views

Can antibody variable site make a conformational change in shape when antigen binds?

I was asked a question why does the antibody molecule variable site (antigen binding site) can not be made of polysacchrides? Can the answer be that polysacchrides can not make a conformational ...
-1
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1answer
23 views

In phloems, does the sap move through the sieve element cytoplasm?

We know that in xylems, the water move through the lumen of the vessel elements and move to the other vessel element through a pit. As the vessel elements are dead , there is no cytoplasm to block ...
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0answers
29 views

Is it advised to calculate QED parameters for salts?

QED (quantitative estimation of drug-likeness) is a score which helps you to predict if a small molecule is desirable as an orally absorbed drug, described in the Quantifying the chemical beauty of ...
3
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2answers
68 views

New ORFs occurring in SARS-CoV-2 due to mutations

Are there examples of new ORFs in SARS-CoV-2 created by mutations? The ORFs should not be present in the reference virus, but they should occur in a lineage occurring in the wild (at best, being part ...
0
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0answers
24 views

Why is pressure in renal artey higher than aorta?

I am preparing for an exam. I have come across this question recently that pressure in aorta is less than that in renal artery. I am aware of the effect of gravity on venous pooling and high venous ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Number of membrane proteins of a particular type per cell

Is it possible (or meaningful) to count how many proteins (protein copy number?) of a certain type a given cell has on its surface? For instance, say there is some membrane integral protein ...
-2
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0answers
49 views

What can you do with DNA at home?

I just heard of a simple procedure that involves using salt, dish soap, and water to extract DNA from fruit. I was wondering if there's anything you can actually do with this DNA once it's extracted? ...
1
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1answer
28 views

Why are IMAC and gel filtration combined?

In a practical course I used an Biorad Profina system to purify a protein with a histidine tag. The device uses a column for IMAC and one for gel filtration. Why are these two devices combined in one? ...
0
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1answer
39 views

Do chemotherapy drugs target particular cells, and, if so, how?

I would like to know how a chemotherapy drug is able to target specific cells. I've read the chemotherapy entry on Wikipedia, but the only information I've got was: As chemotherapy affects cell ...
0
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0answers
28 views

Is symplastic pathway more used by plants compared to apoplastic pathway?

In my book, this is written about symplastic pathway and apoplastic pathway-- The relative importance of these two pathways varies from plant to plant, and in diff erent conditions. Normally, it is ...
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2answers
72 views

Why do bacteriophages look like tiny little robots? [closed]

I get it, evolution is funny and works in mysterious ways. But come on. You can't tell me this thing doesn't look like a nanobot. Why do bacteriophages look this way? With their cylindrical heads and ...
2
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0answers
50 views

Genetic evolution without crossover

Can someone please point me to the origin of the system of coupled differential equations (1) in Section 2 of Shahshahani's book$^\star$? $$ \dot{x}_i = x_i \sum_{j=1}^n m_{ij} \frac{x_j}{|x|} $$ ...
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0answers
26 views

When are Alleles identical by descent? [closed]

I think it's the last one, but I am not sure. I did some research and I think this is the only one that makes sense. A) they are molecularly indistinguishable. B) they are functionally equivalent. C) ...
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0answers
32 views

What best describes population genetics data for Oceania (Australia & surrounding islands, including the South Pacific)? [closed]

Peoples from Oceania are the only remaining pure Denisovans. Genetically, peoples from Oceania are more similar to Native Americans than to Eurasians. Oceania is a single discrete population, and ...
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0answers
27 views

Molecular biology- Protein- gene interaction [closed]

I have a hypothesize that an N-terminal domain of a protein is responsible for sequence-specific interactions with the regulatory region of a gene. Which experimental strategy would be best to test my ...
2
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0answers
17 views

Is this a Box Tree Moth?

This moth has been hanging about near my house recently (South London area, October 2021) - I have seen it 2/3 times in the last fortnight. I have never seen anything this colour before which is why ...
-1
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0answers
29 views

Can I change the type of melanin I have [closed]

So both of my parents are light skin african Americans and my sister and I are light. We have white people skin color. I was wondering if there was a way for my to change my melanin type from ...
-7
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0answers
63 views

How does and under what conditions does evolution accomplish physical mimicry of another species?

The question I have is, where certain specific evolutionary mutations would occur, is it likely that said mutations related to specific things resulted from a period of more frequent genetic mutation ...
4
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0answers
53 views

Saving a Maize Landrace from Inbreeding Depression

I have 10 seeds of a rare corn landrace. I probably won't be able to acquire more and the cultigen's long term fate is unknown. So, I want to do my best to preserve it for future generations. Corn is ...
-1
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0answers
18 views

How many layers/stratum of skin are there?

How many layers/stratum of skin are there from dermis to epidermis? After a lot of research, I found only 5-6 of them: going from superficial to deep, the layers of the skin would be stratum basale ...
0
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0answers
10 views

How does slowed action potential on the optic nerve cause blurred vision?

In multiple sclerosis accompanied by optic neuritis, there is demyelination of the optic nerve, causing the action potential to be propagated more slowly along axons. But how does this lead to blurred ...
0
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0answers
59 views

Are there traits exhibiting avoidance of the mean?

Sometimes if two organisms with an unusually large value of a continuous trait mate their offspring on average will not have a value as large as one might naively expect. Regression toward the mean is ...
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0answers
39 views

Can offspring be less genetically similar to the parent than more distant relatives?

I'd be interested in answers about any sexually reproducing species, but for simplicity I'm going to focus on humans in this question. If the parents are very genetically different (i.e. the number of ...
0
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0answers
66 views

How to get crisp images on the microscope?

I am using Nikon TS100 (Microscope) to take images of fluorescent green and red dye to see live and dead cells of Shewanella MR1. Visually on the microscope, the images look fine. However, when I ...
0
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0answers
22 views

How does the blood flow in the glomerulus when everything except plasma is drained out?

So I learned that in the glomerulus, everything smaller than the RBCs is filtered out, but I had learned previously that - Blood needs plasma, water medium to flow. So if its drained out into the ...
-2
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0answers
40 views

What is the difference between syngamy and fertilization?

Recently our professor of zoology has given us an assignment concerning the differences of zoology and fertilization. Most places confirm that there is no difference and that both are one and the ...
-5
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0answers
49 views

Brain Transplants success in Human anatomy [closed]

Reference: https://nationalpost.com/health/worlds-first-human-head-transplant-successfully-performed-on-a-corpse-scientists-say Let's take a case of two people who share the same age with Medical ...
1
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1answer
36 views

Ordering Primers: When to choose wet vs dry delivery format?

Whenever ordering primers, I'm always asked to specify which delivery matrix I prefer to have the oligos delivered in: wet (in water or some kind of TE buffer) vs. dry. My understanding is that when ...
1
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1answer
43 views

Electrodes in non-conducting fluid? Are they neutral? Electrolysis, Electrophoresis

I'm a moleculary biology student and have to do a detailed presentation about SDS-PAGE for my next lab. So I was currently trying to understand the physics of electrophoresis and electrolysis. Since I ...
-4
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0answers
20 views

Does mRNA vaccines affect all of the WBC cells in the blood?

Do the mRNA vaccines affect all of the WBC in the blood or just a portion of it ? As an estimate ,how much percentage of the WBC cells/lymphocytes are affected ?
-2
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1answer
31 views

Can mrna spike protein block other proteins entering cells?

When vaccinated with pfizer a mrna is injected which eventually creates spike proteins. These will bind to cells. Now there is a rumour that when these spike protein binds to cells it can block other ...
0
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1answer
30 views

What is the dynamic range under initial conditions?

could someone help me to understand the following sentence better? It's from the book "A Practical Guide to Assay Development and High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery". And it's about ...

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