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Ok, I think I can answer somewhat usefully with the update. It's helpful in this case to think in terms of sampling alleles. It's true that the cases that you give are not 100% unambiguous, but it is not true that we can't give a somewhat confident estimate. We can still make a statistical prediction of the most probable genotype. The first thing to note is ...


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Thank you for asking such a well-thought out question, I really enjoyed how hard this made me think about the concept. I think there might be an issue here that's quite common to biology, in my experience- poor definition of terminologies. I think the core question can be summed up by your comment: I thought dominance was only related to which phenotype ...


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I think that the question is difficult to answer in the current phrasing. However, I will show how it might be easier to answer by filling in some blanks and defining some terms. I am going to define as an "allele" any nucleotide difference between two sequences. This is the molecular genetic definition more or less. I am further going to interpret ...


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