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87 votes

How do scientists kill the bacteria they themselves made resistant?

You are absolutely right, flushing down the toilet (or the sink) or simply throwing them into the normal waste doesn't work for biosafety reasons. And it is also not allowed, depending on the country ...
Chris's user avatar
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19 votes

How do scientists kill the bacteria they themselves made resistant?

To address what seems to be the misconception underlying your question: Killing pathogenic bacteria is not difficult; killing them without harming their (usually human) host is. This is why ...
Wrzlprmft's user avatar
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19 votes
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Does cell culturing contribute to dangerous antibiotic resistance to the same degree as livestock?

Antibiotics are used in very different ways in cell culture and in livestock farming. As you note, in farming, antibiotics are used to manage infection in unsanitary conditions and also to increase ...
jakebeal's user avatar
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6 votes
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Have bacteria evolved antibiotic resistance in a laboratory setting?

Yes, many times. For just one example, see this paper; you could also see this review for numerous examples. These are examples of spontaneous mutations that lead to antibiotic resistance, so this ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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Why is AMR not widespread?

Natural selection is environment-dependent. A mutation that makes an individual more fit in one context, might make it less fit in a different context. The mutations that make bacteria more fit in an ...
iayork's user avatar
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6 votes

How do scientists kill the bacteria they themselves made resistant?

Resistance Is...Reversible? While people generally don't talk about bacteria losing antibiotic resistance, it does happen, and for a pretty obvious reason: the biochemical tools which confer ...
Lawnmower Man's user avatar
6 votes
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Is bacterial resistance caused by underdosing?

In a 2017 analysis in The BMJ, Martin Llewelyn and colleagues addressed the question of whether it is good to advise people prescribed antibiotics to "finish the course".1 I've copied their ...
acvill's user avatar
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5 votes
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Are there limits to drug resistance?

There are physical limits to the existance of life forms, wether temperature, pressure, osmolarity, etc. But these are usually physicochemical fields acting over a wide spatial structure. In the case ...
TumbiSapichu's user avatar
4 votes

Could plasmids and conjugation mechanisms be used against antibiotic-resistant bacteria?

If we assume all of these things could be practically done at least at some point in the future, here are the problems I see with the suggestions, and why they might not work (others may spot ...
Joe Healey's user avatar
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4 votes

Resistance to Antiseptics

For some classes of antiseptics the effect is more simple chemistry or even physics than biochemical toxicity. Ethanol will just denature proteins and dissolve the membrane, and the used concentration ...
VonBeche's user avatar
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4 votes
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If bacterial resistance randomly occur, then why limit broad-spectrum antibiotic use?

You're correct, this is extremely relevant, and it's unfortunate that your medical education didn't include good instruction about evolution. You point to some very useful and interesting studies. I'...
De Novo's user avatar
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3 votes

How do scientists kill the bacteria they themselves made resistant?

Resistant to WHAT? Scientists generally deal with bacteria resistant to some concentration of some particular substance (or combination thereof). Those strains are still pretty much sensitive to ...
fraxinus's user avatar
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3 votes

If bacterial resistance randomly occur, then why limit broad-spectrum antibiotic use?

The mutations are random, the survival and spread of bacteria with said mutations is NOT random. Evolution and selection are situational. The careless use of antibiotics causes those mutations and ...
John's user avatar
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3 votes
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Can (or have) antiviral drugs created drug-resistant viruses?

Resistance to antiviral therapy is a problem in the treatment of many viral illnesses. Influenza is particularly significant given the epidemiological characteristics of the disease. This Nature ...
De Novo's user avatar
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3 votes

Loss of antibiotic resistance due to long term storage

It is possible due to the fact that some antimicrobial resistance genes are induced by the presence of antibiotics themselves and are not promoted in the absence of a specific antibiotic, so the ...
nsa's user avatar
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3 votes

Could plasmids and conjugation mechanisms be used against antibiotic-resistant bacteria?

Could plasmids and conjugation mechanisms be used against antibiotic-resistant bacteria? Apparently yes. At least, it's plausible. The study is very new and, even though it was conducted in vivo, it ...
canadianer's user avatar
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3 votes
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What does completing the course of antibiotics accomplish?

As anongoodnurse has mentioned in the comments, an incomplete course can allow weakly resistant stains to expand their population. As you mentioned, the antibiotic does not cause the bacteria to ...
WYSIWYG's user avatar
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2 votes

Will dead cells in culture media have any significant impact on Live cells during incubation?

I'm not sure if this is linked to the actual dead cells, but I've found that not changing the media on plates while trying to generate lines from primary cultures can lead to contamination. Again, I ...
CAL's user avatar
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2 votes

Resistance to Antiseptics

Of course bacteria can evolve resistance against antiseptics. Usually antiseptics inflict direct damage to the cell rather than interfering in some biochemical pathway. Also, antiseptics are used in ...
WYSIWYG's user avatar
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2 votes
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Is a wild-type strain more "fit" than its mutant strains?

I will assume the mutation is not under some kind of balancing selection such as negative frequency dependent selection. As fitness is conditional upon the environment, I will assume a constant ...
Remi.b's user avatar
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2 votes

Can you design a bacteriophage that attacks the part of the bacteria that makes them antibiotics resistant?

Check out phage therapy. For more details check out the reviews by Levin & Bull (2004) and Skurnik & Strauch (2006). The idea was around for quite some time and there is active ongoing ...
WYSIWYG's user avatar
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2 votes

How close are we to having phages take over the role of infection control from antibiotics? What developments need to occur?

This is a very interesting topic. Indeed, historically, it might seem that "phage therapy" research is in a dormant state. But there are some groups actively doing theoretical research on the synergy ...
TumbiSapichu's user avatar
2 votes

How do scientists kill the bacteria they themselves made resistant?

Autoclave at 120 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes. [ref] Don't ever flush biological material, living animals, or anything other than sanitary-code approved waste down the toilet. The proper way to ...
Mindwin Remember Monica's user avatar
2 votes

If mutations are random, why do antibiotics 'cause' resistance?

There are many models for mutation accumulation (LiĆ² and Goldman, 1998). The simplest model (Jukes and Cantor, 1969) assumes mutations to be a Poisson process. With a given mutation rate, the number ...
WYSIWYG's user avatar
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2 votes
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Why would a mammalian vector plasmid require an antibacterial resistance gene?

I think the assumption you are making is that the ampicillin resistance gene would save a purpose in the mammalian cells. It does not. As you said, it is only use during the cloning process to select ...
Dr. H. Lecter's user avatar
2 votes
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In what stage of bacterial growth can penicillin inhibit the growth of the cellular wall?

This is a really good question that requires you to appreciate a few different details and to overcome a few implicit assumptions that you might perhaps have. The bacterial growth stages you refer to ...
S Pr's user avatar
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1 vote

Can you design a bacteriophage that attacks the part of the bacteria that makes them antibiotics resistant?

It's possible and certain engineered solutions might be even more potent than just phage therapy on its own. For example, imagine if you could deliver CRISPR-Cas with a lysogenic bacteriophage (that ...
armadillofood's user avatar
1 vote

Is it true that it is mostly impossible, for any kind of antibiotic, to succeed in killing off every bacteria in a very rich environment?

The answer is no. The antibiotic will kill all the bacteria it's intended to target, unless a special resistive variant cell(s) exist. What this means is that it is possible that non-resistive cells ...
Samid's user avatar
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1 vote

Is it true that it is mostly impossible, for any kind of antibiotic, to succeed in killing off every bacteria in a very rich environment?

Yes. It is down to mutations. DNA replication is not 100% accurate, there will be mistakes that are not corrected in the progeny produced. Antibiotics works like a bit of gunk wedging itself into ...
JayCkat's user avatar
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1 vote

What effect does taking antibiotics unnecessarily have on future bacterial infections?

As @swbarnes says: Every time you expose a population of bacteria to an antibiotic, you select for organisms with resistance-granting genes. But you're asking about the situation where you're ...
arboviral's user avatar
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