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Due to the nature of the immune system, even people who receive the same vaccine will have a different set of antibodies. Our immune systems generate a vast number of essentially random recognition combinations, unique to every individual. This leads to a polyclonal response to both infections and vaccines, involving multiple antibodies and the fine details ...


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According to this paper, IgM antibodies can last until week 12 after infection by the SARS-CoV-2. Presumably, in case of vaccination, this time should be a lot shorter since the amounts of antigens produced are much less. It is suggested by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that antibody test should be taken at least 2 weeks after ...


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While @mgkrebbs is correct in their answer that the meaning of "stripped" cannot be 100% determined without corresponding with the author, there are clues that point to a most likely answer. The previous sentence, "FA in serum samples was removed as previously described", cites this reference, which describes testing of different ...


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I believe this is a failure of editing, and the meaning in this paper of "stripped" cannot be determined without correspondence with an author. "Stripped" is an informal term for either removal of some substance or treatment with a material such as charcoal which affects many substances. Normally in papers "stripped" is ...


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The term "function-triggering antibodies" is not standard, these are more widely known as cross-linking antibodies. As you may know, an antibody has multiple "arms", with the antigen binding region or Fab (Fragment antigen binding) at the end. IgG antibodies have 2 arms, IgM can have 10. The Fab portion is generally identical on all the ...


2

Background: I worked for a number of years as a product scientist for a fairly well-known antibody company, designing and producing polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies from several species. Of your three theories, any one of them could be correct. Polyclonal antibodies are the cheapest, easiest, and generally fastest way of producing antibodies to a ...


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The decline in serum antibody level after vaccination means the level of spike protein specific T cells declines, in another word, the virus is eliminated [1]. When the vaccine introduced a viral particle or mRNA into the cell, SARS-CoV-2-specific CDH4+ T cells recognize 2 variant spike proteins, helping B cells to secrete antibodies and activating cytotoxic ...


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In general, ECL is more sensitive than TMB for ELISA detection. The minimum detection limit of TMB is 60pg/mL and 20pg/mL for ultra TMB [1], whereas the detection limit of ECL can be as low as about 1.7pg/mL [2]. Resources: https://info.gbiosciences.com/blog/elisa-substrates-a-selection-guide https://www.thermofisher.cn/cn/zh/home/life-science/antibodies/...


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Generally for IHC/ICC staining separately with the antibodies is not a problem. Staining with separate primary antibody steps is often done when the antibodies are from incompatible species and so might cross-react with each-other giving non-specific staining. However, the 10 min wash and 1 hour incubation with the other antibodies may wash off some of first ...


2

I'll address this q and ignore the rest of the (way too long) post/theories: Given that there is one and the same specificity of the key to both the receptor on the infected cell causing the disease after cell entry as well as to the antibodies or immune cell receptors of the immune cells how can it be that a virus that has mutated thus escaping defense is ...


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You don't do this before the fusion, you do it afterwards. First you make the hybridoma cells, which are then seeded as single cells into multiwell plates and cultivated to get enough cells for testing and further culture. This way you get only one antibody type produced per well (which is coming from a single clone, hence it is monoclonal) which then can be ...


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I suspect it has to do with the fact that since the camelid scAbs are expressed in vivo, they undergo the normal recombination and affinity maturation process there as individual variable regions. Thus, one can easily isolate high-affinity scAb mRNAs from the blood of a suitably-immunized camelid and proceed with cloning and production. Human heavy chains ...


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That's the description in my book which has the same image. The book is: Janeway's Immunology (9th Edition) Article discussing MHC Class II expression in humans: https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.168.2.763 Excerpt from the book: The processing and presentation of pathogen-derived antigens has two distinct purposes: inducing the development of armed effector ...


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If a head-to-head "match" between antibodies from two different people was to occur, a similar match would most likely have occurred already in the donor. People have the same tissues after all. But in the donor; the B lymphocytes producing the antibodies had to go through the processes of "central tolerance" and "peripheral ...


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Giving a simple answer is difficult as the field of humoral immunology is quite extensive. Here is an abbreviated overview. Our body produces myriads of different antibodies during an immune response, not just one. It is impractical to isolate and sequence one antibody protein as their sequence differs in very subtle ways. N-terminal sequencing like Edman ...


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Short answer: no. Because all vaccines (that I know of) rely on protein or polysaccharide production in some form, whether "natural" (e.g. inactivated virion, subunit vaccines) or "artificial" (purified protein from expressed genes) forms, and the aim is to elicit an immune response that targets the natural pathogen form, so you need to ...


1

Antibody tests have only been used on people involved in studies or surveys. This is the first time the tests are widely offered to the UK public for the purpose of collecting information about “vaccine effectiveness and the immune response of the broader population”. This action is what they are referring to as “new” here, not the antibody test itself.


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Yes, we can concentrate viruses and other objects of interest onto beads using antibody conjugated beads (such as these ones from New England Biolabs - I have no affiliation to any company linked in this post, but do occasionally use their products). This is a process called immuno-precipitation and has been around for a very long time. This is also the ...


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Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are human blood products purified from the plasma from many healthy donors. These are natural proteins that your body normally makes to help you to fight infections and to serve other functions for the immune system. In addition, all immunoglobulins are screened to eliminate the possibility of carrying pathogens or other ...


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One has to distinguish the cause and the consequence: the only viruses that survive the natural selection are those that can evade the immune defenses while effectively infecting cells. A virus strain not successful at either of these tasks is less fit and likely goes extinct. One can pose a question of what modifications in virus proteins allow it to be so ...


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