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Short answer: no. Because all vaccines (that I know of) rely on protein or polysaccharide production in some form, whether "natural" (e.g. inactivated virion, subunit vaccines) or "artificial" (purified protein from expressed genes) forms, and the aim is to elicit an immune response that targets the natural pathogen form, so you need to ...


Although it's focusing on mechanical injuries, Time Course of Immune Response and Immunomodulation During Normal and Delayed Healing of Musculoskeletal Wounds provides a number of time points for specific immune responses along with references. That should get you started. This article is looking specifically at musculoskeletal injury situations rather than ...


Antibody tests have only been used on people involved in studies or surveys. This is the first time the tests are widely offered to the UK public for the purpose of collecting information about “vaccine effectiveness and the immune response of the broader population”. This action is what they are referring to as “new” here, not the antibody test itself.

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