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Background: I worked for a number of years as a product scientist for a fairly well-known antibody company, designing and producing polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies from several species. Of your three theories, any one of them could be correct. Polyclonal antibodies are the cheapest, easiest, and generally fastest way of producing antibodies to a ...


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I believe in the article you provided it is stated that the function of MHC class II molecules on activated CD4+ T cells is still unclear. It is believed that these MHC class II molecules-presenting T cells have potential ability to act as antigen presenting cells and induce immune response by activating other T cells. They are also capable of inducing down-...


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In general, monoclonal antibodies are used as primary antibodies and conjugated to the nanoparticles due to their ability to bind specifically to a single epitope of an antigen (1). Even a small change in the structure of the epitope can affect the binding to antigen, so this automatically makes your last statement impossible because a single monoclonal ...


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According to this paper, IgM antibodies can last until week 12 after infection by the SARS-CoV-2. Presumably, in case of vaccination, this time should be a lot shorter since the amounts of antigens produced are much less. It is suggested by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that antibody test should be taken at least 2 weeks after ...


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Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are human blood products purified from the plasma from many healthy donors. These are natural proteins that your body normally makes to help you to fight infections and to serve other functions for the immune system. In addition, all immunoglobulins are screened to eliminate the possibility of carrying pathogens or other ...


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You don't do this before the fusion, you do it afterwards. First you make the hybridoma cells, which are then seeded as single cells into multiwell plates and cultivated to get enough cells for testing and further culture. This way you get only one antibody type produced per well (which is coming from a single clone, hence it is monoclonal) which then can be ...


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Generally for IHC/ICC staining separately with the antibodies is not a problem. Staining with separate primary antibody steps is often done when the antibodies are from incompatible species and so might cross-react with each-other giving non-specific staining. However, the 10 min wash and 1 hour incubation with the other antibodies may wash off some of first ...


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Is this an ELISA? In that case, I suggest you doing this experiment again because now you are incubating for an extra hour. Incubation time is set at fixed range because increasing it may also increase the background noise of your assay. Incubation times - sensitivity may be increased with a longer incubation time at room temperature. Be aware that the top ...


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In general, ECL is more sensitive than TMB for ELISA detection. The minimum detection limit of TMB is 60pg/mL and 20pg/mL for ultra TMB [1], whereas the detection limit of ECL can be as low as about 1.7pg/mL [2]. Resources: https://info.gbiosciences.com/blog/elisa-substrates-a-selection-guide https://www.thermofisher.cn/cn/zh/home/life-science/antibodies/...


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The decline in serum antibody level after vaccination means the level of spike protein specific T cells declines, in another word, the virus is eliminated [1]. When the vaccine introduced a viral particle or mRNA into the cell, SARS-CoV-2-specific CDH4+ T cells recognize 2 variant spike proteins, helping B cells to secrete antibodies and activating cytotoxic ...


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I suspect it has to do with the fact that since the camelid scAbs are expressed in vivo, they undergo the normal recombination and affinity maturation process there as individual variable regions. Thus, one can easily isolate high-affinity scAb mRNAs from the blood of a suitably-immunized camelid and proceed with cloning and production. Human heavy chains ...


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