In order to form a hybrid, substantial genetic similarity between the organisms is required. To understand why, the successful formation of a zygote from the gametes of the two parents (i.e. fertilisation) in higher animals like mammals requires that the genomes of the organisms be reasonably similar (or homologous; see for instance human fertilisation). ...
As the previous answers clarify, all organisms have heritable traits that may be manipulated through selective breeding. It is the pragmatics that can be prohibitively challenging. From an (zoo)archaeological point of view, few animals have actually been domesticated, and only recently in our species' history. The dog is an unusual case, perhaps domesticated ...
Yes, selective breeding results in evolution.
Definitions of evolution
I don't understand why you say that for 3 of the definitions you found, selective breeding would not be considered as evolution. To me, all of these definitions match with the idea that selective breeding results in evolution. If you think otherwise, can you please explain why?
Do birds descend from dinosaurs?
First, it is confusing to say things like
Birds descend from dinosaurs
Humans descend from monkeys
Mammals descend from vertebrates
Snakes descend from animals
It is much more correct to say
Birds are dinosaurs
Humans are monkeys
Mammals are vertebrates
Snakes are animals
You should definitely have a look at the post If ...
No, it is not. As you said only 1-4% of non-subsaharan africans' genome is from Neanderthal and it is more or less the same sequences. The entire Neanderthal genome is not present in modern day humans, it is only a small set of sequences.
Setting aside the eugenic implications of what are you suggesting (short answer: yes it is theoretically possible, but no it is practically impossible), a more interesting observation is that evolutionary anthropologists think that humans might have "self-domesticated" during our evolutionary history.
There is a wide literature on this topic, but a recent ...
Selection is a mechanism of evolution which favours specific forms of traits over others, this can cause the spread of beneficial mutations through a population.
Natural selection is the spread of beneficial traits/genes through populations as a result of the natural variance in their effect on reproductive output (a function of life history traits like ...
The answer is "yes". Evolution is defined as a change in heritable characteristics of a population over generations, and to me, there is no reason not to define domestic animals as populations.
The statements you list can all be refuted:
Part of the selection human-driven, part "natural". You cannot control all genes.
The concept of fitness talks about ...
Intro course to evolutionary biology
I doubt you can get much from the below answer. At the end of the day, the only thing that would really allow you to increase your knowledge is probably an intro course to evolutionary biology such as Understanding Evolution by UC Berkeley for example.
Is it possible to artificially select for flight in pigs?
My favourite definition
Selection is a fitness differential associated to a genetic variance among individuals in a population.
You might want to have a look at What does fitness really mean?.
What I like about this definition
I personally went with this definition because it is short and clear cut and directly highlight the importance of mathematical ...
Artificial selection leading to new species - Domestication
As you talk about dogs in your intro, let's consider them.
You will fail to breed a great dane and chihuahua for obvious mechanical reasons. You will also fail to breed a chihuahua with a wolf. So, yes artificial selection have lead to reproductive isolation.
Artificial selection leading to new ...
There is no genetic basis for these classifications. Most human genetic diversity is in Africa. Diversity only decreases with geographic distance from this continent. There are geographic clines, not the clusters that one might call race. Here are some results from Rosenberg's 2002 Genetic Structure of Human Populations:
93-95% of variation occurs within ...
First, you need to recognise the difference between Natural selection and Artificial selection. As a basic definition, you can say that in natural selection, selection is done on fitness (overall, long-term success of reproduction) and is determined by the complete living environment of the species. In artificial selection, selection is done by humans on a ...
I understand the question as "can you get any animal to have heritable traits selected by humans?"
This definition of domestication implies that a population of animals can be bred for a sufficiently long period of time, so that humans can select hereditary traits that fit their needs. Humans could provide selective pressure that creates a new variety with ...
Selective breeding, or artificial selection, by its very definition is the selection of desirable traits over less desirable ones. Individuals more like the desired phenotype are allowed to reproduce while others are not. Therefore, the reason a breed is selected in a certain way may be because of certain aesthetic characteristics, or speed, or hunting ...
As everybody, I don't fully understand your question. Can you please add your definition of domestication?
Would you consider domestication as soon as human can select for heritable traits? If yes, then the question may be split in two:
Do all animal populations have heritable traits?
Yes! But Depending on what kind of traits you want to consider no ...
One should be able to tell this from comparison of the sequence with that of the original organism in GenBank etc. The differences in an engineered organism will generally be extensive and of such a kind that a specialist in the field will be able to identify their origin and deduce that they did not arise naturally.
However there is no general and ...
How selection is "best defined" is clearly subjective. However, even though it is a key process in evolution, the exact delimitation of (natural) selection is not clearcut, or rather, authors have defined it in slightly different ways in relation to the evolutionary process (see below, especially quote at bottom from Wade & Kalisz). A paper worth reading ...
Selective breeding will select for genetics that are already present in your population, but won't introduce new DNA sequences that aren't carried by any of the population members. It would technically be possible if everyone carried a different 1-4% of the Neanderthal genome, since it would be possible to reconstruct the full Neanderthal genome by creative ...
I believe that you are talking about "multidimensional selection".
E.g. you are selecting on not one trait (yield) only but more than one (yield+some other trait). There's quite a bit of work done on this in crop science for example.
Figure 3 from the last talks about this in terms of evolution by reproductive isolation, ...
Most commonly by breeding with a related plant - if there is one. Mutagenesis is an old technique that technically can work.
If one part of the plant has mutated, of course you can take cuttings or plant tissue culture samples.
strawberries can be bred and characteristics selected for.
A good example ...
Evolution really is all about random rolls of the dice, with natural selection deciding the outcome. The question of pigs flying has a precedence. Birds evolved from therapod dinosaurs (one of which is T-rex). But birds have an awful lot of adaptations for flight, including many that must have functioned for some other purpose before they could fly, such as ...
The term truncation selection has been used a lot in theory papers because it is a simple model and because it is of interest to breeders. Truncation selection is most likely more common in a breeding setting than in nature and from wikipedia, truncation selection is defined as specific to breeding
In animal and plant breeding, ...
Yes, everyone use SNPs today for such analysis. Some RADseq is probably the way to go.
Detecting selection is not an easy task as many technics exist which differ by their assumptions and by the applicability. You should probably try to find papers having done the same type of analysis with the same types of data and eventually talk with authors. Your lab ...
Depends on the type of alteration.
If we are talking insertion/alteration/deletion of whole genes, we can easily discover the changes by genome sequencing and comparison.
If we are talking a single point mutation somewhere in the genome, it is harder to detect the change as such mutations can occur naturally (roughly 20-30 such mutations occur per human ...
Not all animals are equally predisposed for domestication. To be easily domesticated, animal should have:
Flexible diet - and not compete with humans for food
Reasonably fast growth rate
Ability to be bred in captivity
Temperament which makes it unlikely to panic
Modifiable social hierarchy
Wikipedia link above has plenty of details.