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Heated Honey and HMF In this paper, Studies on the physicochemical characteristics of heated honey, honey mixed with ghee and their food consumption pattern by rats, by Annapoorani, et.al.;International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda, 2010 Apr-Jun; 31(2): 141–146.doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.72363, the report finds a statistically significant increase ...


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Clostridium botulinum toxin is present ubiquitously in soil. As such it is more than plausible that hay bails, which come into contact with soil can and I should expect almost probably will be infected with these bacteria. However it is not the mere presence of the bacteria itself which causes poisoning, it is the toxins they produce when the appropriate ...


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Considering great research we did after the answer was accepted, I should add important information about the topic. The old (and accepted) answer follows in "" marks for the sake of clarity. We found that in spite of the earlier reports, the newest ones failed to find endotoxin-like structure in the Listeria born material. Most academic discussions about ...


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Because of that, I assume botulinum toxin is more dangerous to humans than many animals. Couldn't find too many examples but, there are some things to consider (according to [1]): there are seven distinct types of toxin with variable action among animals different dose / effect intensity ratio between toxin types toxins A, B, E and F cause disease in ...


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This is a really fascinating question and got me reading stuff all through the night. If my response seems tl;dr, then please skip to the fourth paragraph. From what I've found in literature, it may be the case that prolonged exposition to certain temperature ranges may prove lethal to some pathogens. Shortening this time or shifting the temperature may ...


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One needs to be careful making broad generalizations about meningitis. The term simply refers to inflammation of the meninges (the outer layer surrounding the brain and spinal cord). Meningitis can occur due to a number of causes, most notably viral and bacterial infections, but can also also be due to fungi, parasites, toxins, cancer, etc. There is a vast ...


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As an addendum to Spinorial's answer, and after some research, the Center for Food Security and Public Health specifically lists hay / grass / decaying vegetable matter as a potential source for C. botulinum growth in their (very informative) Botulism PDF. All species of Clostridium can produce spores, dormant forms of the organism that are ...


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Just to add some important relevant information to the answer from @Ilan. There is no evidence for the presence of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide in Listeria. There was an early report of the presence of LPS (Wexler & Oppenheim, 1979) but this was contradicted by a later study (Maitra et al., 1986). The endotoxin activity of Gram negative bacteria is ...


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Soon after asking this question I found a reliable source, the National Institutes of Health. It can survive for over 40 years.


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1 unit is approximately 10 pg Source One unit of MYOBLOC (botulinum toxin type b) corresponds to the calculated median lethal intraperitoneal dose (LD50) in mice. The method for performing the assay is specific to Solstice Neurosciences' manufacture of MYOBLOC (botulinum toxin type b) . Due to differences in specific details such as the vehicle, dilution ...


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Clostridia form endospores and can survive for years as a dormant spore. You can check this article about viability of clostridial endospores but it doesn't really talk about how long it can survive.


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You seem to not understand how botulism works. It is impossible for vultures (or anybody else) to get botulism from a carcass. First, you have spores. They are ubiquitous in nature, and you have probably eaten lots of them. They are especially common on vegetables growing around/in dirt, like garlic. The spores are indestructible when using common ...


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This is a classical pseudoscientific claim: It is supposed to help against everything, including AIDS, Diabetes, Bronchitis, Cancer and so on. See for example this table I found online: First, there is no real mechanism, and it is rather implausible to have an universal cure-all drug for all these completely unrelated diseases. There seems to be some weak ...


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A chemist's perspective: Ethanol and water are miscible, meaning they are perfectly soluble in one another in all proportions. So given enough time, the alcohol will likely seep into the tissues and cells of the meat, and some water will seep out into the surrounding alcohol bath. The liquids might not equilibrate very well on a reasonable time scale, that ...


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Alphahemolysis simply oxidizes hemoglobin to methemoglobin and causes a color change on blood-agar. The RBC membrane is left in tact as far as I know. If you look at a picture of the 3 types of hemolysis, you will see that there is no zone of clearing in the alphahemolysis plate. Compare that to the obvious zone of clearance observed on the betahemolysis ...


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After V.cholerae gets into the human intestine it starts to multiply its numbers, and then becomes virulent after sufficiently expanding its numbers. This virulence drives the diarrhea which in part causes the bacteria to slough off into the intestinal lumen, and then into the external environment again. So in short it uses the human intestine to increase ...


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It is likely a volatile organic compound (VOC) that is released as a by-product of microbial metabolism, although microbes can also produce some inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg smell). It could be any of a number of compounds, depending on the microbial species and the environmental conditions. The only relevant paper I could find ...


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There is insufficient evidence to claim that soft drinks can kill microbes in the human gut; sugar in them could actually stimulate their growth. Natural acidity of the gastric juice with pH 1.5-3.5 kills a lot of microbes (Medline Plus, Journal of Medical Microbiology). The pH of common soft drinks is 2.5-3.4 (PubMed, Fig.1). So, drinking soft drinks does ...


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I don’t know if soft drinks can help ward off bacterial infections in the stomach, however if you’re not taking antibiotics, other acidic compounds can be helpful for that. One of these is apple cider vinegar, you will find many videos on youtube about it. Another is betain-HCL, which is actually hydrochloric acid, the same acid we have in our stomach but it’...


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The spreading of the rash is caused by dissemination (migration) of the Lyme spirochetes (Borrelia) through the skin out from the initial site of infection. The spirochetes trigger a immune reaction that involves macrophages entering the skin and releasing pro-inflammatory factors. The clear areas (when present) apparently represent areas where ...


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There are several papers that use alkaline hydrolysis to delipidate or "detoxify" the endotoxin for use as a vaccine (1, 2, 3). The point of many of these papers is to develop a detoxified LPS (dLPS) vaccine to protect against sepsis in the pathogenesis and treatment of gram-negative infections. The detoxification is important, as the lipid-A portion of the ...


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This is a great question. I decided to research it and here is what I found. For some reason the GOE is not on lists of the "big 5" mass extinctions. The question is why? I think it's due to the pace of the event. The event is described as happening 2.45–2.32 billion years ago. This is a timescale in billions of years. So it isn't really a proper mass ...


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Vibrio cholerae originated in the Sundarbans, a very large wetland at the mouth of the Bay of Bengal. Although it can exist as free living, it is much more fecund when associated with tiny crustaceans called copepods. In 1760, the East India Company settled and sprawled, hewing the mangroves and planting rice. So, that was the first opportunity of note ...


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The color of our feces is caused by the breakdown products of the hemoglobin, namely Bilirubin and Stercobilin, which depending on the concentration, cause a yellow to brown color. See here for details. Since the amount of liquid lost by the cholera diarrhea with up to 250ml/kg bodyweight is really high, there is only very little to nothing of these ...


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Anaerobic condition and CO production Hemolytic and nonhemolytic bacteria were incubated aerobically and anaerobically with the following substrates: erythrocytes, hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome c, hematin, iron hematoporphyrin, copper hematoporphyrin, protoporphyrin, and bilirubin. After 18 hr at 37 C the evolved CO was measured by gas chromatography....


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Theoretically there are two very basic things to consider in judging virulence for the secretion systems: a) Can it secrete into any human cell? (If not, chances of being virulent are smaller, but not zero as whatever is secreted in the environment of a cell could also be harmful for the cell.) b) Does it secrete some agent (protein, RNA, molecule), which ...


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I think you cannot find a better answer then the following review: http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v13/n6/full/nrmicro3456.html It was published in 2015, and it gives a good overview about the secretion systems. Anyway, T6SS can also be virulent. Vibrio cholerae can use an effector of this SS to cross-link actin in the host cell and modify its ...


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Virulence factors of V cholerae is regulated by a hierarchical regulatory system. The proteins you listed in your question are part of this system. In this paper it is said that the actual activation of TCP and CT is done by ToxT- thus this could be your "key" protein. I'd also like to note that just because these are two different genes does not necessarily ...


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