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The answer by @SMcGrew is essentially correct, but let me add a technical term (at least in the context of infectious diseases): the bacteria and viruses a carried by vectors. Since word vector is a kind of overused, even if we limit ourselves to biology, it is also common to be more specific and call the disease vectors. Vectors are classified into ...


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As you may have realized, crystal violet can be replaced by a lot of dyes since the ethanol will wash out the dye from the gram negative cells. Methylene blue is a nice choice - malachite green may also work. A weak concentration of hydrochloric acid (3%) is also a possible replacement for the ethanol. A 3% HCl solution is used in the acid-fast stain but it ...


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Vibrational-electronic coupling: Vos et al. is most likely, but some have suggested quantum entanglement which would be great if photosynthetic organisms grew at cryogenic temperatures.


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