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Keep in mind that microwaves kill organisms via heat, and in particular, heating mainly water. This is contrast to ionizing radiation, for example as obtained from the cobalt used in commercial food radiation. If the pathogen does not contain, or is not sufficiently adjacent to liquid water, or is not sensitive to heat, it may persist. As an explanation, ...


Main function of the salt bridge is to conduct electrons. It should be in such a way that the agar within the PVC pipe from both end should be in contact with anode and cathode. so I would say keep it completely filled for better conduction.


This is well documented in Advances in Microbial Physiology, Volume 16, Moseley and Williams, pages 116-117 (searchable via Google Books). Mattern et al. (1966) designated mutations that made E. coli Bs-1 sensitive to X-ray radiation as exr (X-ray sensitivity) mutations. That same year, Howard-Flanders and Boyce (1966) independently designated equivalent ...


A recent Nature article, entitled A new genomic blueprint of the human gut microbiota, contains the following Figure: [Fig. 3 Phylogeny of reference and uncultured human gut bacterial genomes] I don’t know much about bacteria, but, according to their entries in Wikipedia, Actinobacteria, and most Firmicutes are gram-positive and, as these appear to be ...


Link to wiki: Found this under Composition -> Intestines: The small intestine contains a trace amount of microorganisms due to the proximity and influence of the stomach. Gram-positive cocci and rod-shaped bacteria are the predominant microorganisms found in the small intestine.


Depending on the precise details of the experiment, I don't see a particular reason to suppose that being coated with IgA should mean that they'll elicit an IgA response. I'm assuming that the "coating with IgA" means that the IgA is binding like an antibody, through the variable region binding site on the antibody to some epitope(s) on the bacteria. The ...

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