7

I doubt anyone knows the answer to which aspect of variation jays are considering when sampling nuts (although my guess would be mass). Langen (1999) did do experiments that explored the sampling behaviour you've noticed — they offered jays samples of peanuts with ranges as wide as 1 g (i.e. over a range from 1 to 2 g). The analysis mostly focused on when ...


4

Geldanamycin/radicicol would be examples. They are both Hsp90 (protein chaperone) inhibitors. There is a lot of literature on their biological effects (see references therein), specifically their role modulating genetic interactions and also as chemotherapeutic agents for killing cancer cells. Both of these natural compounds are created by microbes as ...


3

This article shows a lefthanded bias for climbing and eating, with one bat species: Paolo Zucca, Alessandra Palladini, Luigi Baciadonna, Dino Scaravelli. "Handedness in the echolocating Schreiber's Long-Fingered Bat (Miniopterus schreibersii)" Behavioural Processes, Volume 84, Issue 3, 2010, Pages 693-695, ISSN 0376-6357, https://doi.org/10.1016/j....


3

So horses, donkeys, and zebras are all of the genus Equus. Mules are not a species, since they are the product of the cross-breed between horses and donkeys, and are sterile (therefore do not comply with the biological interpretation of species). Given that 2 out of the 3 species from the species of the genus Equus are aggressive against predators (zebras ...


2

Two examples off the top of my head: Meerkats (Suricata suricatta). It's well-known that each member of a meerkat group takes turns minding the pups for the whole group, and this includes both males and females. Quote from the website http://meerkats.net/info.htm which states this specifically: babysitter - Stays with the pups while the gang is out ...


2

"Gaze" is the typical term for the direction something is looking, including head/neck and eye position. Gaze detection, gaze following, and gaze perception are used in the literature; there might be other combinations with the term "gaze", as well, I see lots of results with a more general gaze+predator search. These are all more general ...


2

Your respiratory system has quite a number of neural and non-neural (e.g., physical, emotional, and chemical factors) controls in addition to the ability to be voluntary controlled. A strong influence on much of our respiratory physiology is a response to changes in carbon dioxide in the blood (well, more specifically, it's blood pH that is regulated). ...


2

I found this article ([free PDF on ResearchGate) from 1989 in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology entitled "Fighting, assessment, and frequency alteration in Blanchard's cricket frog". The author analyzed the sound wave frequency of the frogs' dominant call to see if it negatively correlated with fighting. In other words, were the frogs with deeper ...


1

I suppose we are yet very far from understanding these things. Relation of genotype to phenotype is teh subject of much contemporary research, but it is mainly limited to simple phenotypic features, explainable by action of a few genes, such as the colors of zebra fish mutants: see, e.g., this paper and the related publications by Nüsseln-Vollhardt group. ...


1

Given that "hammerhead worms" are Bipaliinae, I expect you can find your species from this bibliography1. Bipalium or Diversibipalium ruteofulvum and cosmopolitan Bipalium kewense are mentioned, but I did not find images of these species online just now. A paper about the sense organs of B. kewense (Abdel-Haleem, 2014) mentions many small pigment ...


1

Surprisingly, bonobos do. A study from researchers from the Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology back in 2008 and other research found that even though bonobos prefer to solve problems using sex, bonobos fight each other and even other great apes. The same thing applies to bees. Australia's stingless bees go to war where thousands of worker ...


1

It's eating a flicker woodpecker. And yes, it did kill it and is eating it. Crows and ravens are omnivorous but also predators. They will opportunistically kill any small prey they can catch. Most birds are too quick for a crow, but flickers and all woodpeckers are notoriously slow flyers. It's about the only type of bird that is both small enough and slow ...


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