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"Cortex" is a more general anatomical term for the outermost layer of a structure. It applies to both the cerebral and cerebellar cortex gray matter, as these are gray matter structures on the outsides of their respective parts of the brain. Nucleus is also a more general term; in the context of neuroanatomy, it refers to a cluster of cell bodies. Typically ...


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We are part of a biological system, and we evolved to be part of it. Plants are the base of that system, and the main means of capturing energy and inorganic compounds and converting them to nutrients which are bio-available, along with bacteria. The further we move from the niche we evolved to occupy, and the further we change the environment of the rest ...


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In general, "apo" is used to indicate an apoenzyme — that is the protein part of an enzyme without essential cofactor(s). This is actually defined in the Experimental section of the paper: Cas9/Cpf1 without gRNA (ApoCas9/Cpf1) So, in this case ApoCas9 is Cas9 endonuclease that is not bound to a guide RNA.


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This is a brief answer (for me) to point out that: Your question is not really concerned with photosynthesis but is actually about the choice of the carbon constituents of living cells. First you talk about photosynthesis as if it is a single process, however it is two separable processes: The Light Reactions convert solar energy into chemical energy (in ...


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IanC's answer is great, but is missing one and possibly the most important point. There is a distinction between being alive or having life, and "life" in the sense that we associate with words like individual, personhood, being. In the first sense; the biological sense, a zygote is most definitely alive; a living thing; a lifeform etc. But in the second ...


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The discussion of when a life starts is a little more complicated than that. Many views and disagreements between them fuel the discussions of pro-life/abortion groups. Some of the views and what they consider the beginning of life: Metabolic view: Considers that there's no singular developmental moment that marks the beginning of life. Any single or ...


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Welcome to Biology SE. Coming to your question, Fertilin and Fertilizin are different. Fertilin Fertilin is a sperm surface protein with an essential role in fertilization. It is required for the migration of spermatozoa through the oviduct, for binding to the zona pellucida, and for efficient binding to the egg plasma membrane. Fertilin consists of two ...


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