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The World Health Organization states[*]: 1:100 dilution of 5% sodium hypochlorite is the usual recommendation. Use 1 part bleach to 99 parts cold tap water (1:100 dilution) for disinfection of surfaces. They say most household bleach solutions contain 5% sodium hypochlorite (50 000 ppm available chlorine), which does seem to be the typical concentration ...


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I have also been frustrated by use of percentages in protocols when making dilutions of stock bleach. It's helpful to look at the product labels, as they often have dilution factors for different uses as well as concentrations in parts per million. I have a bottle of Clorox brand concentrated bleach sitting next to me, and the label says this solution is ...


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It seems canadianer's intuition is correct -- Base stacking still occurs in ssDNA, so I suspect that is why you see a temperature dependence -- based on this paper: Conformational Changes in Single-Strand DNA as a Function of Temperature by SANS Motivation -- UV absorption-based measurement of DNA melting temperature is reliant on the assumption that ...


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Perhaps I can help answer your question as I'm an RDN. Years ago I went to grad school on an Allied Health Traineeship & that was thanks to citizens of the U.S.A. Although now retired, as well as having been a clinician, I'm a former prof. When CDC says to use “5 tablespoons (aka 1/3 cup) bleach per gallon of water” or “4 teaspoons bleach per quart of ...


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The outermost layer of your skin consists mostly of dead cells, the Stratum corneum. Copper can't kill what's already dead.


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According to Diet Induced Thermogenesis (Nutrition & Metabolism, 2004), the percent of calories converted to heat depends on a nutrient: Proteins: 15-30% Alcohol: 10-30% Carbohydrates: 5-10% Fats: 1-3% A mixed meal: ~10% (this is an estimated average) The thermic effect of nutrients is not a fixed value and can vary greatly within a person and from ...


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I'll keep the answer to this as concise as possible. The major mismatch repair (MMR) pathway used by eukaryotes is the MutS$\alpha$-MutL$\alpha$-dependent MMR. See the diagram below for its mechanism: The pathway initiates when MutS$\alpha$ (Msh2–Msh6) binds to a mismatch. This is followed by binding of MutL$\alpha$ (Mlh1 and Pms2). PCNA then activates MutL$...


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