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“The question is if there’s some reason this is the definition of ketogenic amino acids” The answer from @user1136 covers the biochemistry of the degradation of ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids. However it doesn’t answer this part of the question directly, which is what I shall use my answer to add. Just as we may classify amino acids as hydrophobic or ...


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The fundamental 'problem' with acetyl-CoA is that it cannot be converted to glucose via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle: a two-carbon compound (acetyl-CoA) enters the TCA cycle, but two carbons are lost as CO$_2$ during each round of the cycle (in the two decarboxylation steps, ie in the reactions catalyzed by isocitrate dehydrogenase and by the alpha-...


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In both humans and animals, the body fat stores appear as triglycerides, which can be composed of different fatty acids, but they all have about 9 kilocalories per gram (USDA). There can be different amounts of fat in different fat cells, so there can be slightly different amounts of fat in 100 grams of different types of fat tissue. Calories in 100 g of ...


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We are part of a biological system, and we evolved to be part of it. Plants are the base of that system, and the main means of capturing energy and inorganic compounds and converting them to nutrients which are bio-available, along with bacteria. The further we move from the niche we evolved to occupy, and the further we change the environment of the rest ...


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Melanocytes of vitiligo patients have strong basal expression of chemokine-receptor-3 (CXCR3) isoform B which is directly regulated by IFNγ. CXCR3B activation by CXCL10 at the surface of cultured human melanocytes induces their apoptosis. The remaining melanocytes, activated by the IFNγ production, express co-stimulatory markers which trigger T-cell ...


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indeed, here is another pic of the ulnar nerve. https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/sites/default/libraries/healthwise/media/medical/hw/h9991344_001.jpg


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As a short note- Immobilized - B, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S, Zn* Mobile - N, P, K, Cl, Mg, Mo You need to find references.


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In general, "apo" is used to indicate an apoenzyme — that is the protein part of an enzyme without essential cofactor(s). This is actually defined in the Experimental section of the paper: Cas9/Cpf1 without gRNA (ApoCas9/Cpf1) So, in this case ApoCas9 is Cas9 endonuclease that is not bound to a guide RNA.


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This is a brief answer (for me) to point out that: Your question is not really concerned with photosynthesis but is actually about the choice of the carbon constituents of living cells. First you talk about photosynthesis as if it is a single process, however it is two separable processes: The Light Reactions convert solar energy into chemical energy (in ...


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IanC's answer is great, but is missing one and possibly the most important point. There is a distinction between being alive or having life, and "life" in the sense that we associate with words like individual, personhood, being. In the first sense; the biological sense, a zygote is most definitely alive; a living thing; a lifeform etc. But in the second ...


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The discussion of when a life starts is a little more complicated than that. Many views and disagreements between them fuel the discussions of pro-life/abortion groups. Some of the views and what they consider the beginning of life: Metabolic view: Considers that there's no singular developmental moment that marks the beginning of life. Any single or ...


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