14

Well there is the common Bloodworm (Glycera dibranchiata)which people use for fishing bait. The animals are unique in that they contain a lot of copper without being poisoned. Their jaws are unusually strong since they too contain the metal in the form of a copper-based chloride biomineral, known as atacamite. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/298/5592/389....


13

Looks like some parasitoid wasps have zinc coated barbs on their ovipositors which may function to help them bore through wood and lay their eggs. Here's the blog entry about it on IFL Science, and the original article: parasitoid ovipositor specimens had a weight percentage of zinc of 7.19±3.8% (N=42) in the tip regions, which was significantly higher (...


13

So earth is estimated to be around 4.5 billion years old, and life has existed for about 3.4-3.9 billion years of that, around >75% the time. For a little perspective, Homo sapiens have been around for up to ~250,000 years, just 0.00005% of the time earth has existed. In that time the earth has changed massively, early earth was pretty hostile, but that ...


11

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scaly-foot_gastropod Gastropod that incorporates greigite, pyrite, and graphite on it's shell and foot. Due to the large quantities of these compounds in dissolved form surround the hydrothermal vents. Speculation for purpose: the shell is extremely resilient, the metal does improve this greatly. Though whether evolution ...


8

Short answer Before the RNA world, mineral surfaces may have facilitated the prebiotic containment and organization of biomolecules. Minerals are believed to have promoted the transition from a dilute chaotic prebiotic “soup” to highly ordered local domains rich in key biomolecules. Background As pointed out by others, the transition from a hereditary DNA ...


6

If we change the question to "what is the minimum number of elements common to every form of life?", my lists would be as follows. (I am not considering either viruses or prions to be 'alive'). The following elements are surely common to all forms of life (List 1): H (1), C (6), N (7), 0 (8), Mg (12), P (15), S (16) [#7]. In addition, the ...


5

Though not in metallic (0) stage; an Iron ore called "Bog-Iron" is formed via microbial process. Fig-1: Bog iron (Wikimedia) It is formed inside bogs and swamps, classically in Sphagnum-moss-bogs. It is also found in peat. Fig-2: a bog (Wikipedia) , (Wikimedia) Fig-3: Sphagnum sp, common bog moss of temperate and cold regions. (...


4

Although you should be able to find bacteria that can grow on plastic, I think your criteria of 'not difficult to find' might be a challenging one to meet. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is a commonly used plastic, and in 2016 Yoshida et al. discovered a species of bacteria, Ideonella sakaiensis, which can grow using PET as its carbon source. This study ...


4

Have you ever looked up the scaly foot gastropod? It uses iron as a form of body armor. Literally scale armor on It's foot.


4

There are many things that could affect the rotting of your venus fly trap while digesting including: size of the bug, age of the trap, and temperature. Sometimes a venus fly trap will turn black and fall off while it's digesting a bug when the trap is very old. As the trap ages, the digestive juices are recycled and as a result form a weaker mixture which ...


3

Barden et al (2017) have discovered an extinct species of ant (hell ant) that was alive 95 million years ago that had naturally occurring metal mandibles. Mandibles on ants are essentially the same as fangs on spiders or teeth on humans.


3

im no biologist, but while not commonly cosidered, calcium IS a metal, so technically skeletons count. additionally, while not technically a metal, limpet teeth are quite impressive. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-31500883


3

You can do without DNA, you need RNA to make proteins. Living organisms create and maintain a bubble that is very far removed from thermal equilibrium. So, you can speculate that at the origin of life, conditions existed where processes that are far from thermal equilibrium could still occur naturally without the support structures one finds inside living ...


3

Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of food derived from plants. Most of these are indeed polymers of sugars (that is, a chain of repeated basic unit of carbohydrate), for example cellulose, alginate or pectin. They have glycosidic bonds that cannot be broken down by enzymes found in humans, and are thus indigestible. But there are exceptions, for ...


3

Send soil samples to a soil lab (e.g., here). They will likely use the Mehlich III extractant method to extract and quantify the nutrients (most importantly the bases such as Ca, Mg, K, and Na). Will cost less than $25.


2

That is lysergic acid piperidide, an analog of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). According to Wikipedia, it is an agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor, but is much less potent than LSD.


2

There is absolutely no problem here. Primers will degrade only very slowly at 4 degrees and even at room temperature leaving them out overnight would not degrade them enough to be of practical consequence. In fact, if you're using them today it's probably better to have stored them at 4 degrees than -20 because repeated freeze/thaw cycles will also degrade ...


1

In my experience this is not a problem. I keep my working stocks at 4°C until they are finished to avoid freeze-thaw cycles and better convenience and they work all the time. I also dissolve my primers in pure water, not in TE. Long-term storage of stocks should be done at -20.


1

As far as I can tell, enterochelin esterase (Fes) utilizes an Alpha/Beta hydrolase fold to catalyze it's reactions, which means there's a triad of catalytic amino acid side chains. Where Fes differs from other proteins in the pathway is an amino terminal lid domain which confers specificity to the substrates of Fes ((1) dictates this forms a deep pocket in ...


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