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Yes, any individual ligand may have the wrong orientation to interact effectively with an individual receptor, but so what? There are typically thousands of each type of receptor on a single cell1 and there will be many molecules of a given ligand present as well. For your synapse example, I suggest looking up: How many neurotransmitter molecules will ...


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The conversion from chemical to mechanical energy is in general done by molecular motors which perform a power-stroke, using the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or more rarely of GTP to power a change of their conformation while bound to cytoskeletal elements. Molecular motors include myosins, which is the molecular family powering muscles in ...


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