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37 votes
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What was the breakthrough behind the “sudden” feasibility of mRNA vaccines in 2020?

Answering my own question after reading the 2018 Nature review article “mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology” The resources and motivation engendered by the COVID-19 pandemic are a major factor in ...
hb20007's user avatar
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11 votes
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What are the difficulties/challenges against developing a coronavirus vaccine?

There are multiple challenges presented, and many of those are not limited to coronavirus vaccine. As mentioned above, it just takes time. Before a vaccine can be used in patients, clinical trials ...
Charlie's user avatar
  • 150
7 votes

Is PCR a DNA cloning technique?

Short answer All of your sources are correct as they are not mutually exclusive. PCR is used to isolate and amplify DNA to yield small quantities of pure target product. Gene cloning can subsequently ...
AliceD's user avatar
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7 votes
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Why is a gene for a fluorescent protein used rather than one for an enzyme that produces fluorescent molecule?

GFP has a lot of advantages: The detection of the fluorescence works directly and doesn't need a lysis step or the uptake of a reagent. Fluorescence can be detected directly using a fluorescence or ...
Chris's user avatar
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7 votes

What is synaptic bias?

Often artificial neurons are created with conventions that zero is "rest" and 1 is "threshold". The unit starts at 0, and when it reaches 1 it will send an input to all of its targets and be reset ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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6 votes
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Why are there two abrupt changes in the genome sequencing price curve?

This graph from the Broad's Opinionome blog (ugh) is somewhat more annotated: As noted elsewhere, the precipitous drop in 2007 is almost certainly due to maturing next-gen sequencing (NGS), in ...
Amory's user avatar
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5 votes
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Is it possible in modern biology to make any person's identical twin (or genetical clone) using his DNA?

I will assume that by "identical twin", you refer to "clones". Individuals who share the same genetics but of course do not necessarily share the same womb. I won't pay much attention in detail ...
Remi.b's user avatar
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5 votes

Plasmids for high school students?

I'd suggest looking at the Terms and Conditions for nonprofit use, here is a screenshot of where it is on the webpage: Look at this form that they link to for legal understanding of what they mean: ...
Maximilian Press's user avatar
4 votes

Best method to cure cancer as of now?

There is no general therapy for cancer - as there is no general cancer. Cancer is the umbrella term for a disease where you have body cells growing without control, leading eventually to death. But ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.7k
4 votes

Why is a gene for a fluorescent protein used rather than one for an enzyme that produces fluorescent molecule?

There are no genes that I know of that encode proteins, more specifically enzymes, that will catalysed the production of a fluorescent compound from intermediates present in the average cell. ...
David's user avatar
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4 votes
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Why is western blotting used to confirm positive ELISA HIV tests?

One reason a Western blot is more specific than an ELISA - even one using the same set of antibodies - is background. Antibody-linked colorimetric reactions aren't completely on/off. There's always ...
R.M.'s user avatar
  • 1,554
4 votes

What is the easiest way to measure a human body surface area?

How cost efficient does it has to be? Do you want these data to be comparable to another study? Fundamental issues What do you call surface area? The interior of the guts (interior of the mouth, ...
Remi.b's user avatar
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4 votes
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Using nanodrop for analysing biological samples other than nucleotides

The Nanodrop is a generic UV-visible spectrophotometer. According to the manufacturer, the latest model can measure absorbance from 190 to 850 nm. Its dynamic range is also very good: from about 0.1 ...
Guillaume's user avatar
  • 715
4 votes

Protein electrophoresis

The problem statement says all the proteins have the same molecular weight but does not say how many amino acids they have. It does say how many cysteine amino acids each has, but not how many other ...
mgkrebbs's user avatar
  • 9,054
4 votes
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Transformation of a multicellular organism

Your inference is basically correct. The Agrobacterium acts as a vector for a plasmid containing the genetic construct one wishes to introduce into the plant genome. A medium containing a large number ...
NatWH's user avatar
  • 940
4 votes

Why are there two abrupt changes in the genome sequencing price curve?

The graph is in contradiction with the data in the Excel spreadsheet the same webpage provides (https://www.genome.gov/sites/default/files/media/files/2019-06/Sequencing_Cost_Data_Table_Feb2019.xls (...
Franck Dernoncourt's user avatar
4 votes
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Problem with joining the gene of interest into the open plasmid when their lengths are not the same

From your question I suspect that you are thinking of DNA as being a very rigid molecule — it isn't. Double stranded DNA is reasonably flexible and a useful mental model would be to think of this ...
tyersome's user avatar
  • 5,598
4 votes
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Which was the first restriction endonuclease to be isolated?

The restriction endonuclease (RE) isolated from E. coli K strain was a type I restriction endonuclease, identified/characterized by Meselson and Yuan1 in 1968. Type I REs are site specific, but ...
bob1's user avatar
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4 votes
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What is the minimum Ct value that you would consider indicates no gene expression?

Can't you just do a negative control and use that to calibrate? Alternately, run the DNA from your PCR on a gel with a positive control indicating expression. Literally zero expression should mean ...
Maximilian Press's user avatar
3 votes
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Is PCR a DNA cloning technique?

Short answer The Oxford English Dictionary is quite clear on this. For the verb clone there are two meanings: Biology To propagate (an organism or cell) as a clone. Molecular Biology To make copies ...
Alan Boyd's user avatar
  • 22.8k
3 votes

Role of calcium chloride during competent cell preparation

Although we do not have any conclusive proof about how $CaCl_2$ works, the suggested mechanism is much similar to what you have suggested. When $CaCl_2$ dissociates in aqeous solution, $Ca^{2+}$ ions ...
another 'Homo sapien''s user avatar
3 votes
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Mass production of bacteria

The fed batch culture is a means of bacterial production that is used in industrial setups. Nutrients are fed into the chamber with controlled ideal conditions for growth of a particular species of ...
Chimango Chisuwo's user avatar
3 votes
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Perplexing by the way of estimating the shared or different genes between humans and chimps

Even though I am not sure I understand your question completely, I want to try to explain to you the genetic difference between humans and chimpanzees. I will work through your questions: We share 98....
AlexDeLarge's user avatar
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3 votes

Will genetically modified food affect our health?

Genetic engineering is a technology not a trait. In general, genetic engineering and genome editing are as safe as conventional breeding and mutagenesis (introducing thousands of random mutations by ...
Frieke's user avatar
  • 1,127
3 votes

Fermentation of bananas

Fruit Moonshine is quite desirable :) Peel the bananas. Good workflow here: http://www.moonshiners.club/banana-moonshine-recipe/ It takes considerable work especially in large quantities. ...
akaDrHouse's user avatar
  • 1,309
3 votes

How can I describe running a solution four times through a chromatography unit (in an instruction)?

I would continue to use inject to describe loading samples into the liquid chromatography system and replace chromatograph the RNAase solution four times. with ...
Michael_A's user avatar
  • 1,305
3 votes

Mathematical Biology Jobs/Prospects?

Off course you can! Here are career paths for you as per my limited knowledge: BioStats There are lot of applications in this domain. For example in Microarray Gene Expression or Proteomics analysis ...
Failed Scientist's user avatar
3 votes
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Selection of recombinant host by color selection method

The Z gene you are talking about should be lacZ that encodes the $\beta-$galactosidase, which is made from $\alpha$ and $\omega$ peptides. Neither peptide is functional by itself. $\beta-$...
Macrophage's user avatar

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