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Your understanding is incorrect. A ligand at its most basic is a molecule that binds to another molecule. There is no requirement for metal atoms whatsoever. In the context of RCSB (home of the Protein Data Bank) we are only concerned with ligands that bind to macromolecules, the structures of which are presented there — usually proteins. The following ...


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Genetic engineering is a process, not a product or end result. Thus, it has no direct effect on "other organisms". Humans have been modifying organisms for tens of thousands of years. We've developed multiple techniques to do so, including selective breeding, mutagenesis, grafting, interspecies hybrids, multiploidy, "genetic engineering" ...


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Genetically engineered crops are more resistant to pathogens, harsh conditions, etc. As such they have advantage over other plants in competition for resources, and thus may lead to dicrease in biodiversity. On the one hand, this is not new - any crop or animal is cultivated by human to disadvantage of its natural competitors - just thinkn of the fate ...


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