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Blood sugar drops (Hypoglycaemia) There are several other uses of insulin (other than diabetic treatment) Some of those could be: Diagnostics Psychology (Narcoanalysis) Parenteral nutrition Cardiology (Glucose–insulin–potassium solution (GIP or GIK solution) is given after a myocardial infarction) Malignancy (Insulin potentiation therapy (IPT)) ...


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In short, sugars are absorbed quicker than proteins and fats because they pass through the stomach quicker and their digestion is simpler. Sugar can be absorbed through the mouth mucosa when applied as a sublingual gel, as discussed here on Biology SE: Is sugar absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the mouth?, but probably in much smaller ...


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Glucagon and cortisol are VERY different types of hormones, though each of them can affect glucose metabolism and effectively can increase glucose concentrations in the blood (albeit through different mechanisms). Glucagon, pictured above, is a 31 amino acid peptide hormone (i.e. PROTEIN) that is released from the alpha-cells within the pancreatic islets. ...


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Thanks to studies on animal behavior and on histamine dection in the Central Nervous System, researchers found out the "histaminergic system". It's thought that histamine-containing neurons regulate sleep-wake cyrcle, immunity, memory, body temperature, drinking, feeding rhythms. By the way, knockout rats who lack of histamine system don't show big defects ...


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The (very) short answer is gluconeogenesis. When glucagon levels are high in response low glucose or low Insulin (perceived in the case of Insulin resistant DM Type II) key enzymes will be inhibited to prevent glycolysis and other enzymes will be activated to produce glucose from various substrates. There are a few sources that can feed into the ...


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I am putting here the main points from the link given by @WYSIWYG (i.e. this): High glucose levels reduce the levels of the powerful vasodilator nitric oxide in blood vessels, a shortfall that increases the risk of high blood pressure and eventually narrows down the vessels...increased modification of proteins by a glucose-derived molecule is a player in ...


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You can put any media in a GasPak or other anaerobic system depending the type of anaerobic growth you are looking for. Sometimes blood is simply added to media to meet nutritional requirements of an organism. I use Columbia Blood agar often as a general purpose anaerobic medium. In a collection of 100+ obligate anaerobes I am working with, around half grow ...


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If you get an intravenous injection containing 10 g of glucose, all glucose will enter the blood within few seconds and your blood glucose level will temporary rise by ~200 mg/dL. If you take 10 g of glucose by mouth, the glucose will be dissolved and distributed within the stomach and small intestine and will be gradually absorbed into the blood, let's say ...


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It would help to see your plots. The way I would imagine to present this data is not scatter plots but line plots: (Each line would have a confidence interval/standard deviation from your different test subjects. This is just a schematic representation. Color represents different experimental conditions. Let me know if I misunderstood your experiment.) Now,...


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There are a couple of different levels of starvation, from fasting to malnourishment to long-term starvation. Let's start from consumption of a carbohydrate-heavy meal. The carbs in this meal are readily converted into glucose, and blood sugar levels will increase. Assuming you're not diabetic, this will lead to increases in insulin production, which will ...


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It is possible to overdose and die of an insulin injection. Obviously, if enough is injected fast enough, the body can't recompense appropriately and and the person would die of hypoglycaemia. Below around 20mg/dL of blood sugar levels in the blood you are likely to suffer brain damage and eventually death.


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Epinephrine is a hormone that works systemically and will activate any and all cells that express a hormone receptor with specificity for epinephrine. As stated in the wikipedia article "It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation, and blood sugar. Epinephrine does this ...


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Good article, please allow me to comment: Both hormones cortisol and glucagon are insulin-antagonistic (=anti-insulin hormones). Glucagon differs from cortisol because it is a peptide hormone and cannot cross cell membrane. It must be injected like insulin. Glucagon is released from α-Langerhans cells in the pancreas during the acute stage of hypoglycemia ...


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Glucagon increase the blood sugar level in normal physiological pathway. It just mediate the blood sugar level when the level is too low. On the other hand, cortisol is used when body under stress. It is used for "fight or flight" response in body, and it increases the energy production temporarily. When body is faced with stressor, the cortisol is secreted ...


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The number of fat cells, or adipocytes, in adult bodies remains constant. Therefore, consuming more fat only increases the size of the fat cells not the number. After reaching the age of about 20 years the average number of fat cells is closely related to body mass index. On the other hand, the adipocytes in children increase in number as more fat is ...


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Yes we do. The first part of digestion starts in mouth. Digestion begins in the mouth, where chemical and mechanical digestion occurs. Saliva produced by the salivary glands (located under the tongue and near the lower jaw), is released into the mouth. Saliva begins to break down the food, moistening it and making it easier to swallow. A digestive enzyme (...


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