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7

This is a great question. Without going into too much detail, there is a series of studies done in northeastern US temperate forests (specifically at Great Mountain Forest in Connecticut, USA) on the growth, survival, and dispersal of canopy trees. In this particular community, light appears to be the primary limiting factor. Seedlings and saplings in low-...


6

Only a small fraction of plant carbon is soil-derived: e.g. from Majlesi et al 2019: although the majority of plant C was obtained from atmosphere by photosynthesis, a significant portion (up to 3–5%) of C in plant roots was derived from old soil" (in an experiment with Scots pine and reed canary grass). As laid out by this review of C4 photosynthesis,...


4

It appears this is a Kigela (and commonly referred to as a "Sausage tree" in English). It is - as you suspected - considered inedible and even poisonous in its fresh form (but apparently it can be dried or fermented). It has, as you said, a hard shell which can make this fruit usable as a container after it is hollowed-out. The wikipedia article ...


3

The benefit is not in taking up more water but in transporting the things that water contains. Plants rely on bulk transport in water flowing though specialized tissue (xylem), somewhat analogous to blood flow in an animal. Water flows through the xylem using capillary action; when water is lost at the top, capillary action pulls water into the vacated space ...


3

There are numerous visual indicators for various type of plants that determine plant health. For example the rigidity of the leaves can help you determine that enough water is supplied to the plant (1). Now you can also determine the leaf shape and detect for presence of disease (2), pests (3), and plant health in general (4). This research however mentions ...


1

Rose species reproduce perfectly well in nature, by the normal means of seeds and suckering. For instance, Rosa woodsii is found growing along streams throughout the western US: https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=rowo The reason rose (and other plant) VARIETIES are propagated by various artificial means is primaily because they are ...


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