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10

I have found what may be the holy grail. It is a book known as "A Botanical Materia Medica" by Jonathan Stokes. This has several volumes, but the one you want is volume 1, which has no appended "volume X" in the title. A list of abbreviations can be found on page XIII (or 13 for those not familiar with Latin numerals), just after the ...


8

Yes, photosynthesis provides nearly all of the ocean's biomass and energy. The best is to study oceanic food chains and webs. It looks like there aren't enough plants in the ocean because they don't form huge reserves of foliage and branches... 10% of land plant mass dies and is replaced every year, and 100% of oceanic plants die and are replaced every week:...


7

Short answer All marine life needs energy to survive and reproduce. "Heterotrophic" organisms get their energy from eating other organisms and digesting the molecules of their tissues for driving cellular respiration/function. Ultimately, though, entire ecosystems and food webs are dependent on the non-biotic energy (e.g., sunlight) captured by &...


7

Regarding spontaneous generation: Francesco Redi performed an experiment 350 years ago disproving spontaneous generation of insects (see here). Source: Lumen Learning Further work by Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall ~150 years ago definitively convinced the science community that spontaneous generation does not occur -- a belief which is in no way ...


7

Only a small fraction of plant carbon is soil-derived: e.g. from Majlesi et al 2019: although the majority of plant C was obtained from atmosphere by photosynthesis, a significant portion (up to 3–5%) of C in plant roots was derived from old soil" (in an experiment with Scots pine and reed canary grass). As laid out by this review of C4 photosynthesis,...


6

The third photo gets to the heart of the matter. Here's an enlargement: The gold-colored areas are the anthers of some of the stamens, the filaments of which are fused with the tissue of the petal. (This is typical of the Apocynaceae, the family to which A. blanchetti belongs; they have epipetalous stamens, that is the stamens are "adnate" i.e. ...


4

This looks a lot like a ramosa mutant (for example see the ears in panels A,G,H - taken from Figure 2 from Gallavotti et. al. 20101). Ramosa mutations affect the branching pattern of the inflorescence (i.e. the ear and tassel in maize - aka. corn in the US) and are typically highly variable. These are thought to be partial reversions to the phenotype of ...


4

Short Answer There is no such word that I can think of. Long Answer Note: although fungi were once considered to be lumped with plants, such classifications fell out of favor 60+ years ago (or sooner). See here for a summary. Nomenclature "dead ends" Using the traditional taxonomic approach (including Woese's familiar 3-domain classification ...


4

The Brassicaceae family (of which cabbage and mustard are members) has a characteristic pattern of flowers - each flower has four equal sized petals, arranged in a cross-shape hence their other name - crucifers. [h/t wikimedia commons] It's not easy to see from your photos whether this is true, but I'm going to say, yes, it does look like a member of the ...


4

These are not eggs, they are rose leaf galls caused by the spiny rose gall wasp (Diplolepis bicolor) larva that encases itself inside the gall and then matures and chews a hole in the gall to escape in spring, laying its eggs on a newly emerged leaf bud. The larvae generate the gall in the fresh leaves, perpetuating the cycle. Remove the galls in late summer ...


4

According to "Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary" (Harris & Harris, 2001): Tree: a large woody plant, usually with a single main stem or trunk. An emphasis here should be on the woody characteristic. I'm not sure many botanists (if any) would define 'trees' without woodiness being part of the definition. As such, ...


4

Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaeva) have been known to live to be thousands of years old. The oldest known living individual is named Methuselah and is estimated to be more than 4,800 years old. It's been credited as the oldest living non-clonal organism on Earth. There are multiple other trees over 1000s years old.


3

This paper might be of interest to you: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/8/eaax5253. The researchers created a synthetic mangrove that actually performs desalination, using the principles of natural mangroves. The introduction has a good overview of the main ways mangroves desalinate saline water, namely: Physical blockage by suberin within cells ...


3

The plant uses light to produce energy but also as a signal of how and when to grow (phototropism, photoperiodism). In the context of your question I'll first cover light-harvesting in photosynthesis and then phototropism. Tl;DR Blue and red light are important for plant growth. Red light is the main one in photosynthesis and if a plant is exposed to another ...


3

The benefit is not in taking up more water but in transporting the things that water contains. Plants rely on bulk transport in water flowing though specialized tissue (xylem), somewhat analogous to blood flow in an animal. Water flows through the xylem using capillary action; when water is lost at the top, capillary action pulls water into the vacated space ...


3

There are numerous visual indicators for various type of plants that determine plant health. For example the rigidity of the leaves can help you determine that enough water is supplied to the plant (1). Now you can also determine the leaf shape and detect for presence of disease (2), pests (3), and plant health in general (4). This research however mentions ...


3

This appears to be a flower of a tree in the Syzygium genus. Because there are many species (1200+) -- many which are intentionally planted as ornamentals outside of their native range or have the propensity to become invasive -- I cannot confidently provide a more specific species given the garden location in which you found your specimen (and lack of ...


3

Short answer I would also guess it's Smilax herbacea, but let me go a step further and explain why... LEFT: NC State Extension ; RIGHT: SEINet Long Answer This does indeed appear to be a species of Smilax, a genus of climbing and sometimes woody plants often found with prickles. The group often picks up the colloquial name "greenbriers," and ...


3

Neither. (From personal experience growing a few saffron crocus in my garden.) Like other bulbs (or in the case of crocus, corms, to be technical), the saffron crocus has an annual life cycle. The bulb sends up leaves & flowers according to seasonal* cues. The flowers will die whether or not you pick the stigmas. Indeed, the stigmas are usually the ...


3

If you zoom in on your picture, you will see that the small orange blobs have legs. These are red spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), which is a very common pest species of plants world-wide. They are called spider mites as they may spin webs on the plants they are feeding off. You have quite the infestation in the picture. It will take quite a bit of pest ...


3

@JonathanMoore is correct, this is indeed a Brassica species. The brassica family (Brassicaceae) is a quite diverse family with something like 370 genera and 4000 species. They are found world-wide (apart from Antarctica, although Tryggve Gran tried mostly unsuccessfully to grow Sea Kale during the Terra Nova Expedition to the South Pole). You likely walk ...


3

Without knowing the geography of where the photo was taken, we could guess this is a European Mountain Ash (Sorbus aucuparia) which is fairly widespread in North America and Europe (but doesn't really grow in South America, Asia, Africa, Australia).. You can look up this plant for information on the berries. They contain vitamin C, but don't have much other ...


3

Yes there are many aquatic plant species which do not stand up in water. You need to look at the lifeform of the plants, such as introduced by Raunkiaer ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raunki%C3%A6r_plant_life-form ) and later work by Ellenberg & Mueller-Dombois (1967). In fact, you're mixing up two different lifeforms : true aquatic plants are unable ...


2

The light harvesting complexes use light energy to "lift" electrons to a higher energy state from which they can be used to reduce organic molecules (by way of an electron transport chain and NADPH), leaving a "hole" or cation behind in the LHC and thereby oxidizing it. If these complexes were not re-reduced by something, they would ...


2

Anytime you see this being used in terms of a range... the numbers outside the parentheses represent the normal or expected range, and the numbers inside the parentheses represent atypical extensions beyond the normal range that are uncommon but possible and recorded. Radford, Ahles, and Bell's 1968 flora, Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas ...


2

It's an Ipomea also known as a Morning Glory. There are 600 species of Ipomea including the sweet potato. There are many colors of mixed Ipomea, your one is probably a fairly random hybrid. It is perhaps most similar to Ipomoea Rubriflora and Ipomea Coccinea:


2

The plant will intake water to keep constant internal water pressure to compensate for evapotranspiration. However, the evapotranspiration will not be a simple universal number. The evapotranspiration rate strongly depends on temperature, air humidity, water tension inside the plant you want to keep (may it wilt?) and also the radiation received by the plant ...


2

Virus are extremely host-dependent because they need to enter the host, move inside of it, use its replication mechanisms and codon usage. There are virus that cross the family boundry (ToMV for example) but crossing the kingdom boundry is less probable. For example, animal cells don't have a cell wall, which is a major change and requires a change in ...


2

Seeds are made from cells in an amorphous metastable superviscous state because the cell's cytoplasm becomes a solid matrix of hydrogenated oil and sugar. The fats also contain a lot of anti-oxidants, so that ambient oxygen that can affect the dormant cells is absorbed by buffer chemicals. The sugars and oils in the cell cytoplasm (the inside of the cell) ...


2

The answer depends to some degree on what you mean by "some process of vernalization". As far as I know, the difference between winter and spring varieties is a matter mostly of how strong the response is, not whether the response exists. One paper writes in the abstract: Wheat cultivars are classified as two general types: winter wheat with ...


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