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In principle, any biological product should be able to be developed through microbial synthesis, with the appropriate choice of chassis. Indeed, this was the goal of the DARPA "1000 Molecules" program, which did indeed demonstrate it was possible to rapidly engineer new pathways for production of new biomolecules. In practice, however, some ...


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At least some plants have cellulases which can be used to cleave primers from mature cellulose chains. Cellulose synthesis requires chain initiation and elongation (the two processes are separate). CesA glucosyltransferase initiates cellulose polymerization using a steroid primer and UDP-glucose. Cellulose synthase utilizes UDP-D-glucose precursors to ...


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Background: Most fungi can reproduce sexually and asexually, and some even parasexually. Fungal reproduction is complicated! Idiomorphs are at the exact same locus (like alleles) but produce a completely different protein rather than a variant of the protein. Heterothalic - also called outbreeding: male and female reproductive structures are in different ...


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Plant leaves develop from leaf primordium or meristem tissue (this tissue has special properties that allow it to continue dividing to make more more cells, i.e. stem cells - not stem cells like cells in the stem but the technical term 'stem cells). Because of the hormone balances to maintain this division property the meristem tissue will remain close to ...


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Your question could be a bit more clear, but I think you are referring to this- The apoplast is the space outside the plasma membrane consisting of intercellular spaces where the material diffuses freely; it includes parts such as the cell wall and intercellular spaces. The symplast consists of the cytoplasmic network of plant cells interconnected by ...


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I do not believe that galls are categorically non-mutualistic. However, as noted above, ant domatia (of acacia at least) are not galls, the trees produce them in the absence of ants. However, the size and number of domatia seems to be mildly inducible by the presence of their symbiotic ants. But back to galls as mutualistic, my argument is that seemingly ...


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I will answer my own question for anyone that's interested in doing something similar. First, a great reference for seed morphology is A. C. Martin's The Comparative Internal Morphology of Seeds (1954), available on JSTOR and from sci-hub. To dissect a seed, you’ll probably want to have a good dissection microscope, two pairs of sharp tweezers, a razor blade,...


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Meristematic tissues or meristems contain cells which can rapidly divide or reproduce and is responsible for the overall growth of the plant. Apical meristems and lateral meristems are found in the roots and stems of the plants. Please note that the whole stem or root is not laded with these tissues. Plant cells usually have a large central vacuole which ...


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Seeds are made from cells in an amorphous metastable superviscous state because the cell's cytoplasm becomes a solid matrix of hydrogenated oil and sugar. The fats also contain a lot of anti-oxidants, so that ambient oxygen that can affect the dormant cells is absorbed by buffer chemicals. The sugars and oils in the cell cytoplasm (the inside of the cell) ...


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The rationale behind CAM photosynthesis, as opposed to C3 photosynthesis, is to partition the "light" and "dark" reactions temporally to avoid production of phosphoglycolate by RuBisCO in the presence of oxygen. During photosynthesis, molecular oxygen is produced in the photosynthetic electron transport chain, or the "light" ...


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