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The terms gray and white matter relate to their color in gross specimens (i.e., not microscopic specimens) that have been formalin fixed. Nissl granules describe a microscopic structure, the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and aren't directly related to the color of gross specimens. Here's an example of a frontal cross section from a University of Utah slide ...


6

Whenever you see a percentage, you should think "Percentage of what?". Not doing this is usually at the root of the trouble people get into with percentages. The water and fat percentages mentioned in the question are certainly not percentages of the same thing. The sources of the figures should make clear what the percentage is of, but non-scientific ...


5

I would like to asnwer this question. I will try to avoid repeating any information about possible causes of autism, which was mention here. Anyway there is new interesting information. Autism spectrum disease (ASD) is typically diagnose from the psychological point of view. Such thing like repetitive behavior, echolilia, stimming and stuff like that. True ...


5

I know we have sensors in the form of hairs that trigger a nervous impulse to the brain when they are stimulated. But as I understand it, each one can only send that on/off binary signal when they are triggered by a very specific level of sound. Your overall question borders on philosophy and the biology of consciousness which is hardly understood at ...


3

C. Elegans is the only species with a fully characterized connectome and I don't believe there's been much electrophysiological work done on them. The GEVIs are still being optimized and have their own share of issues particularly with signal resolution - distinguishing between subthreshold changes in membrane potential vs action potential. See the embedded ...


3

You're looking at many structures in this area. The region directly above the midbrain is the diencephalon (meaning "across + brain"). From inferior to superior it's composed of the hypothalamus, thalamus, and structures that developed from a developmental region referred to as the epithalamus that include the pineal gland, habenular trigone, and choroid ...


3

"Cortex" is a more general anatomical term for the outermost layer of a structure. It applies to both the cerebral and cerebellar cortex gray matter, as these are gray matter structures on the outsides of their respective parts of the brain. Nucleus is also a more general term; in the context of neuroanatomy, it refers to a cluster of cell bodies. Typically ...


3

There are two types of synapses namely Electrical synapse and Chemical synapse. In electrical synapse there is physical contact between two cells through gap junctions. In chemical synapse there is a small gap between two cells which is termed as synaptic cleft. The presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes at chemical synapses are separated by a synaptic ...


3

During development of the brain neurons undergo several steps of differentiation. They transition from neuronal progenitors to mature neurons, resulting in different types of neurons, characterized most prominently by their primary neurotransmitter. During the differentiation, different genes are expressed, which in research is used to label specific cell ...


2

What gender someone identifies with or relates to comes in to play outside of utero as kids start to perceive themselves in a certain way. Biological factors, however, influence the likelihood someone will perceive themselves in a certain way. These factors may appear in utero or even later in life. Studies have suggested that developmental factors that ...


2

The components of the inter-stitial fluid will be dependent on where the synapse is though yes it will be aqueous. Good old fashioned diffusion over a concentration gradient will be responsible for ensuring sufficient neurotransmitter reaches the receptors on the other side of the synaptic cleft. Tough to find something you can easily reference online for ...


2

Here's an article I found that seems to attempt to address this question, using a kind of machine-learning approach involving "Long Short-Term Memory" (LSTM)-Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), to classify EEG from participants who were watching either "easy" or "difficult" online lectures - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5620019/ . It's not a ...


2

Aside from autapses and pacemaking cells, there are also some kinds of sensory neurons that exhibit a spontaneous resting (constantly depolarizing) activity that helps with encoding stimuli. The benefit of having constant activity is that stimuli can further excite or inhibit this activity, and this can be valuable information. Sensory neurons such as ...


2

Many articles focus on the pro-oxidant function of iron (and globins in particular). It makes sense that levels may be higher in the CNS due to their role in respiration, which is increased secondary to the “absolute requirement” for glucose facilitated by constitutive GLUT3 expression. So perhaps ferritin is increased to maintain supply for neuroglobin ...


2

This is actually not an unheard of idea among neuroscientists and is an aspect of much research. Brains in general have amazing computational powers and abilities that allow them to circumvent the limitations of computation which is usually based on a Turing Machine. Neurons pursue highly parallel architectures and exhibit cognition or even emotions or do ...


2

Neuroendocrine systems can be defined as the sets of neurons, glands and non-endocrine tissues, and the neurochemicals, hormones, and humoral signals they produce and receive, that function in an integrated manner to collectively regulate a physiological or behavioral state. The neuroendocrine system is the mechanism by which the hypothalamus maintains ...


2

While the brain is often compared to a computer (sometimes even rightfully), one key aspect people often overlook is that the brain is inherently analog, whereas computers are inherently digital: All a computer really does in any single operation is to combine 0's and 1's really really fast - and the faster it's able to do that, the faster it will ...


2

The general rule (though like much of biology there are exceptions) is that each neuron releases a specific neurotransmitter: neuron types are often named by this principal neurotransmitter plus the suffix -ergic: a cholinergic neuron releases acetylcholine. There are also similar molecules that do in fact act throughout the body, but we don't call these ...


1

I'll attempt an answer, but please know you don't have a clear nor defining question to address. This is more suited for conversation or open discussion, and I recommend starting a chat on the topic. Please be wary the question may be put on hold. I'll give it a go and respond from the top down. I absolutely don't think this is going to be fruitful for other ...


1

What you are talking about is a déjà vu, the feeling of familiarity even though the situation is not familiar at all. It is, in fact, a very common phenomenon. A high percentage of people report having had déjà vus. It is nevertheless hard to put a number to it, because the experiences and déjà vu definitions might be different. I have found numbers between ...


1

The answer to your question could be yes or no, determining how you define "clock speed". First, the title of the question is partially misleading since when you talk about a biological "clock", most people will assume you're referring to sleep/wake, night/day, or melatonin-related (daily cycle) activity. (Turns out your question is about speeding up neural ...


1

No, white matter structure is not fixed at a very early age. Although a person is born with most of the neurons they will ever have, those neurons must form connections between each other, via axons and synapses, and many of the axons become myelinated during this period. Although the number of neurons remains relatively constant, these processes lead to a ...


1

Being a Special Education Trainer at ACCEL Centre, I have done some research regarding this topic, but haven’t found a shred of full-proof evidence to support this theory. Well, first of all, autism is a sensory integration disorder showing visible signs of speech delays and communication difficulty with others. The main reason that causes autism spectrum ...


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