Questions tagged [cell-biology]

The study of cells and their physiological properties, structure, environmental interaction, division, life cycle, and death, as well as the organelles they contain. Also known as cytology.

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Cell Size and Morphology of Microalgae under Wastewater

Hypothetical situation ahead, I am just curious whether the cell size and cell morphology of microalgae changes when it is under the influence of wastewater. For instance, mixing the microalgae ...
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Is this contamination, debris?

I have been culturing SVG cell lines. This line was obtained as live culture from another institute and was delivered by mail. After subcultuing , i saw some particles, i dont understand what are they....
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What distinguishes a colony from multicellular organism?

I would like to inquire what made biologists conclude that colonies such as the famous Volvox is an organism constituted by independent cells as opposed to a multicellular being. I read that it has ...
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How much effort is it to establish a cytotox assay for cancer cell lines against a small number of possible compounds?

I am currently testing a series (5-10) of small molecule compounds against an enzyme that are intended as inhibitors. This enzyme is meaningful for cell proliferation. Until now, nothing was active ...
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What determines whether a cell divides by Mitosis or Meiosis?

What I learn from biology class is that mitosis is for producing somatic cells in animals and the gametes of some plants. And meiosis is for production of animal's gametes. I am curious about what ...
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Autotrophy vs. Heterotrophy in Chemotrophs

What's the difference between chemoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs? They do both get their energy from high-energy inorganic particles, right?
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What is meant by the stabilization of a receptor?

I am reading a journal paper, and have a question about the below statement: PSD-95 is involved in the recruitment, trafficking and stabilization of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) and α-...
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What happens if a lysosome is pierced and it's enzymes are made to get released

I am confused the results be same as it happens when lysosome gets damaged during some metabolic activity or different . If same the cell will die by the actions of those hydrolytic enzymes slowly or ...
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Was there a first biological cell on earth? or a similar cell originated simultaneously around the world?

It logically follows that if life began on earth and life is cellular, then either that life began singularly or began simultaneously around the world? What is the evidence or argument for either ...
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Are all unicellular eukaryotic organisms protists?

I know that the Protists are in Domain Eukarya, and that some protists are unicellular. Are there any other eukaryotic group of creatures that are not protists that are unicellular?
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Storing bacteria in a dry, room temperature long-term storage whilst maintaining viability

I'm quite new to biology, but I'm wondering if there are any methods of storing bacteria in long-term, dry conditions with no climate control. Perhaps they could be dormant in a powder or granule-like ...
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Does recombination occur in both chromatid of a chromosome with homologous chromosome? Or only 1 chromatid participate in crossing over?

A chromosome has two chromatids. In meiosis weather both chromatid participate in crossing over or just only 1 chromatid does? So, I am asking whether 1 turquoise and 1 purple chromatid participate ...
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AP2 Binding to LDL Receptor

Is Ap2 always bound to the LDL receptor and only binds clathrin when it detects a change in the LDL receptor, i.e. LDL binds?
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FH (familial hypercholesterolemia)and LDL Receptors

I'm trying to understand how FH affects LDL receptors. Does FH affect the function of LDL receptors (mutates them) or the number of LDL receptors at the plasma membrane at any given point? Or both?
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Induction of IFN-beta in HEK293T

I'm trying to increase expression of a protein we're attempting to study, UBL7, supposedly unregulated by Type I Interferon and particularly IFN-beta. I've tried treating HEK293T cells (~60% ...
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Does this cryoEM micrograph show one or two macrophages?

Attribution: CC BY 2.0 DEED NIAID. The image description says "Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a macrophage," implying this is just one macrophage. Is this true? If so, what is the ...
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Are cytoplasm and collagen basic in nature?

Eosin is acidic in nature. Hematoxylin is basic in nature. What I have learnt about H and E staining is that the nucleus is blue in colour because it is acidic and takes up the basic dye, Hematoxylin. ...
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What is the difference between an immortalized human cell line and a cancerous cell line?

Many cell lines (like CaCo2) are derived from cancerous tissue, and hence, like any other tumor cell, they have an infinite replicative potential. However, many cell lines like HaCaT cells are not ...
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Does this explanation hold good even in case of Mitotracker red?

When the fluorescence intensity is higher when the depolarization is high? The more damage to the mitochondria, the more mitochondrial dysfunction and therefore more fluorescence intensity. So, in ...
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Does the molecules in nerve cell membrane change 100% during the life of the nerve cell?

In their lifespan nerve cells do not divide and so they stay the same. They do get damaged sometimes and require some maintenance and change their axons a bit. They also require a lot of energy so ...
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Examples of mechanisms of metabolic trapping inside cells that create concentration gradient

I am looking for examples in biology in which a metabolite that can diffuse freely across a cell membrane (through passive diffusion), once inside, gets modified to a form that cannot diffuse back ...
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Effects of oxygenated water on bacteria

I was curious if any of you would happen to have any experience with this but any hypotheses regarding how this would turn out would be much appreciated. I’m wondering if water fully aerated with ...
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Explanation behind the observed chloroplasts in Elodea during Hypotonic vs Isotonic Solution

Me and my colleagues put the elodea leaf in distilled (hypotonic) and tap water (isotonic). We observed under the microscope that the elodea under the hypotonic solution became elongated and turgid, ...
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Can multi-cellular organisms transform into single-cellular organisms and conversely?

If we have a multicellular organism A, can it transform into an organism B in its lifespan, so that B is single-cellular? And conversely given a single-cellular organism B, can it become a multi-...
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How is axis formation in the mouse embryo determined?

I recently came across this MCQ question when revising for stem cell biology exam. "How is axis formation in the mouse embryo determined?" The 5 options are as follow: A. By sperm entry ...
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Is there such thing as "being aware of itself" at a cellular level, or is awareness only a multicellular thing?

It appears to me after a brief thought, that you need multiple cells to send and coordinate messages in order to have "self awareness". Basically, you need some sort of centralized brain it ...
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Proportion of cell layers in the different areas of human cortex

I am looking for any scientific paper or book which could help me find the different proportion of layers across the different areas of the human cortex. I am working on a research project which ...
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Where can I find a video of human cells reacting to cold water vs warm?

I have the following lists: ...
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In atherosclerosis, why do apoptosed macrophages stay on the endothelium?

In atherosclerosis, the following process happens: Lipid deposits of LDL-cholesterol happen on the endothelium They triggers an inflammatory reaction of the endothelium: macrophages circulating in ...
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Relation between the number of children and maternal telomere lengths

I've read multiple papers with contradictory findings. Some suggests a strong negative effect by birth-giving on telomere lengths. Others disagree. However, none of them establishes causal relations ...
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Building a better cell detection interface

First of all, i dont know if the following request is allowed within the guidelines of stackExchange, but i will post it and delete it if deemed necessary. I am a student (computer science) who was ...
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Are all proteins translated by the RER ribosomes destined for the Golgi apparatus?

The proteins translated by the free ribosomes can fold in the cytoplasm and never go through the endomembrane system. But when the endomembrane system is described, it is always stated that the ...
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What kind of bubble this?

This is the MARC-145 I cultivated. Recently, many bubbles appeared in the cells. I don’t know why.
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Does the smoke produced by tobacco affect mitosis in vegetables (plant cells)?

There is a plethora of literature and research studies on the effects of tobacco on the human body and other animals. I am interested in knowing whether the rate of mitosis in plants is affected by ...
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In what sense is Syringammina single-celled?

In what sense is Syringammina single-celled? For example, if it's true that all cells have membranes (is it?), then how do you identify its membrane? Or does unicellular simply mean that it has only ...
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Need biological system with specific reset process

I need a biological process that can be described as a stochastic process in statistical physics. I am familiar with some processes such as birth-death or gene expression, but now I need a process ...
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Is there a link between SASP and fibrosis?

1/ Fibrosis: Fibrosis is the formation of excessive fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue during a reparative process. 2/ SASP: SASP is the accumulation of molecules and senescent cells in ...
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Are there any good demonstrations of phosphorylation cascades?

So I'm working on this 2D signal transduction pathway computer simulation, and I'm struggling to grasp this process of protein kinases phosphorylating each other over and over again during the "...
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What is the precise definition of "cytokine"?

For example, both bone morphogenetic protein 4 and nerve growth factor are paracrine signaling proteins which promote growth of their respective tissues, and both are known to have some effect on the ...
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Why is the nitrate concentration in a root hair cell higher than the nitrate concentration in soil?

For the exchange of nitrates and other mineral ions to occur between the root hair cell and the soil, the root hair cell needs a higher concentration of mineral ions and nitrates than the soil so that ...
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Cell culture contamination

I've been culturing my cells over 2 weeks and just yesterday these things popped up in my flask , I'm not sure if they're contamination or not.uesterday they looked white and today I found one of them ...
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What is meant by the steady-state activation of a receptor?

I am reading a journal paper about the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. In this paper, there is the following statement: Finally, we show that the IGF-IR and the PI3K subunit p85 and Akt are ...
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Do we know how the different functions are selected when Wnt pathway is activated?

The Wnt signaling pathway is said to allows multiple functions: Axis patterning Cell differentiation Cell proliferation Cell fate specification Cell migration But how are these functions "...
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What cells are secreting Wnt pathways and under which conditions?

Former question: Where and how happen these operations in the Wnt signaling pathway? I have read about the signaling pathway on wikipedia: Wnt comprises a diverse family of secreted lipid-modified ...
totalMongot's user avatar
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Aerobic respiration takes place in the mitochondria; anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm. Is there a biochemical reason for this?

According to hyperphysics.edu, and my general knowledge, anaerobic respiration occurs in the cytoplasm. ("Anaerobic respiration (both glycolysis and fermentation) takes place in the fluid portion ...
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Relationship between general pictorial representations of cells and reality

As a novice biology student, I have seen a lot of pictorial representations of cells, from a generalised basic eukaryotic cell to specialized forms. But is it right to visualize a cell as a 3D sphere? ...
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What are the key mechanisms of control and transport of ATP from mitochondria to synapse in active firing neurons?

I am working with a group in the field of neuronal activity (in computational neuroscience), in specific the firing rates at different ensemble/population hierarchies. It is well established that ...
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Analysing a microscope image

After a session of practical work in cellular biology, I stumbled across this image of human cheek cells. As seen on the sample below several particles envelop one of the cells. What are they? The ...
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Is colocalisation of a protein with a presynaptic marker sufficient evidence to say that the protein is a component of axon terminals?

I am reading journal papers about the subcellular localisation of the insulin receptor (IR) in neurons. I have read a paper stating that IR is highly enriched at synapses, localising to both the ...
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Why doesn't the cell just use one messenger?

I recently learned the second messenger model, where adrenaline activates adenyl cyclase, which converts ATP into cAMP. Then cAMP acts as a second messenger which activates portein kinase enzymes. The ...
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