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Single cells do not have brains. Plenty of multicellular organisms do not have brains either. Multicellular organisms such as fungi, plants, sponges do not even have nervous systems, and many organisms with nervous systems (like some jellyfish, molluscs, arthropods...) do not have something you could call a brain (I mean, I guess arthropods have a brain in ...


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The key is that TKIs, such as Imatinib, are a therapy rather than a cure Per Wikipedia, Imatinib acts as a competitive inhibitor of the otherwise constitutively-active BCR-ABL fusion protein, rather than the fusion gene. By binding the kinase domain, BCR-ABL is unable to phosphorylate downstream effectors that result in unchecked proliferation. As long as ...


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As @Roshelle Perera points out, the textbook reason for differential solute and water movement in different parts of the LoH is osmolarity, which is nicely explained in this wikipedia article. Coming to an interesting point, about the movement of water across cell membranes through aquaporins, this is helpful:{1} The discovery of aquaporin membrane water ...


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Water across cell membranes occurs due to osmosis( which is based on a concentration gradient). so water diffuses through the cell membrane. sometimes water channels called aquaporins can be found. https://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/FluidBook/fl1_2.php https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/aquaporin In the loop ...


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Even though the DNA sequence may be 90+% similar between two species, individual amino acids can make a huge difference in the interaction between two proteins. In this case, the most relevant proteins are the coronavirus spike protein and the ACE2 enzyme expressed on the surface of target cells. Even in the limited amount of time SARS-CoV-2 has existed and ...


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In earlier days, biologic classification systems were often described as 'artificial' or 'natural', depending on what characters they considered for classification. It was held that natural systems reflect the 'real' relationships among living beings. Linnaeus' classification of plants, for instance, was considered natural, as it was based on floral ...


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The factors limiting ATP production are the rate of fuel (glucose, fats, amino acids, etc.) metabolism and its efficiency (ATP molecules per fuel molecule). It is possible to produce ATP with zero oxygen by the glycolytic pathway; if this were not true, there would be no anaerobic organisms on Earth (which there clearly are). Muscle can do this too for short ...


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Myoblasts are the embryonic precursors of myocytes (also called muscle cells). Myoblasts differentiate into muscle cells through a process called myogenesis. A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell. Muscles are composed of tubular cells called myocytes, known as muscle fibres in striated muscle, and these cells ...


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