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The cytoplasm is like the ocean. When you talk about the ocean, do you include the fish? What about islands? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. You could use a cytosol/cytoplasm distinction, where cytosol is "just the liquid part outside the organelles" and cytoplasm includes all the fish, but context matters and I don't think it's actually necessary to ...


18

The young scientist asks: “What is the correct definition?”. The old scientist answers: “As is often the case in biology, there is no correct definition — different people adopt different usages.” This answer attempts to explain why this is the case and how to find out other than asking people who despite greater age and knowledge, may be mistaken in ...


3

Nuclear pores control what gets in and out of the nucleus. In general, mRNAs are only allowed out, they don't go back in. Reverse transcriptases, of course, will put mRNA back into DNA, but only some viruses, like HIV, have those enzymes. https://portlandpress.com/biochemj/article-abstract/477/1/23/221793/Into-the-basket-and-beyond-the-journey-of-mRNA?...


3

I could not find the $K_d$ of NCX proteins in KEGG BRITE, BRENDA, SuperTarget, DrugBank, Uniprot, or PDSP Ki databases... (Also, I cannot understand the use of the word 'relevant' in the question you asked.) Still, the requested thermodynamic constants can be found in publications. Taken from Z.Li et al.(1994) NCX2 ($Na^+$) : the $K_d$ values for $Na^+$ $(...


3

The pH level of the Bacterial Intracellular structure is different from the pH level on the eternal side of the cell. Moreover, there are no studies that suggest that a change in the external pH of the cell will have a linear impact on the Intracellular pH. Therefore, the best methods to measure the Intracellular pH of the bacteria cell are: microelectrodes ...


2

It's going to depend on what definition is useful in what context. If was was talking about an mRNA being translated in the cytoplasm, I am saying it is absolutely not translated in the ER or the golgi apparatus. (Most proteins translated in those places are on their way to being transported somewhere else; they will not end up free-floating in the cytosol ...


1

Blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue and it can flow. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood


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