5

The answer to Question 1 is: The ribonucleases responsible for digesting removed intron RNA do not recognize the miRNA as such. They are unable to digest it because (or to the extent that) it assumes a double-stranded structure, as they are specific for single-stranded RNA. The answer to Question 2 is briefly: By the same mechanism as the many microRNAs ...


4

In order to assemble your TAG oligos by PCR you will need to redesign your primers so they are complementary to the TAG oligos as DNA polymerases work by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of a DNA strand. Your design would look like this : Now with this design you won't be able to assemble everything together as TAG-3 complementarity to primer 2 only ...


3

The mRNA vaccines encode a mutant version of the spike protein in which the structural transition needed to to fuse membranes is blocked. This was done to make the immune response focus on the pre-fusion state, which is much better for neutralizing the virus. From https://cen.acs.org/pharmaceuticals/vaccines/tiny-tweak-behind-COVID-19/98/i38: Fortuitously, ...


2

I think I may be able to answer my own question here. The ability to have OH groups that form hydrogen bonds with adjacent cellulose molecules implies that the tensile strength will be high and accounts for the property that cellulose is strong.


2

Gibson Assembly is not ideal for short fragments; chances are that the T5 Exonuclease will digest your entire fragment before it has the chance to hybridize with the backbone. For fragments shorter than 200 bp NEB recommends a 5-fold excess to compensate for this, but in your case the fragment would only be around 130 bp long. It might work, but efficiency ...


2

When I was learning genetics for the first time I have also found naming the two chromatids joined at centromere as chromosome a little bit strange. The number of DNA molecules and their behaviour in cell cycle seemed to me more important for understanding of genetics. What you need to understand.is the term chromosome predates knowledge of DNA structure. ...


2

I'll directly go to your fourth question, as all of them can be answered with a yes. This rather old mouse paper already got to the point. Sadly, only the abstract is freely available. Briefly, the number can be variable in the smallest unit you are interested in, the cell type. From the abstract: The distribution of the number of nucleoli in many diploid ...


2

The effects of mutations As have been already pointed out, mutations are neither good nor bad - they are simply changes in the DNA sequence. The effects of mutations on humans and viruses are rather different, since humans are multicellular organisms - mutations in one cell do not affect the whole organism, but only this cell (except for the germline ...


1

Autoimmune reactions each have their target antigens. They'll "attack" wherever those antigens are expressed. In the case of Type 1 diabetes, many specific antigens have been identified, and they all correspond to regions on the surface of pancreatic islet β cells. Ultimately, however, the immune reaction is targeting proinsulin and its processed ...


1

All you need is the Nernst equation and the voltage across the membrane. The answer you get from Nernst is the equilibrium potential for the ion of interest. This is the potential at which the concentration and electrical gradients are exactly equal for that ion. If the voltage across a membrane is at the Nerst potential there is no net passive flow of the ...


1

Although any number estimation would be inaccurate, I can think on two factors that can influence the count. Cells location: Pain is trigger when specialize cells (Nociceptors) fires action potentials. The density of those nociceptors is greater in the tip of your finger than in your back. So the number of cell damage that trigger the pain would be ...


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