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There is a whole class of organisms called "oligocellular" organisms, see also here on SE.


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Species from Gonium genus are typically 4-16 celled. Gonium pectorale is 16 celled. Arakaki, Yoko et al. “The simplest integrated multicellular organism unveiled.”, vol. 8,12, e81641. 11 Dec. 2013, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081641 Also, there is four celled Basichlamys sacculifera. See this picture for reference


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The primary function of a cell wall is B. providing shape. Cell wall provides the cell with both structural support and protection. Protection against bursting by osmosis is a secondary function, which is otherwise provided by the plasma membrane. Cell wall provides shape, rigidity, and turgidity to plant cells. Animal cells do not have cell walls because ...


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There's Trichoplax adhaerens, a Placozoa, made of a few thousand cells. Then there is Dicyema japonicum, a simple mesozoan, made up of 9 to 41 cells. Arguably, the simplest multicellular organism is the algae Tetrabaena socialis, whose body consists of 4 cells. Then, there's the parasitic Myxozoa which have 7 cells.


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This nematode always has either 959 or 1031 cells. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caenorhabditis_elegans


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It is a program executed by transcriptase (processor) inside a cell core (computer).


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Answers to each question: Approximately, yes. In this case, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) is supposed to be the active form of the enzyme that goes around the cell doing its job, whereas non-phosphorylated Akt doesn't have activity that they are interested in. The authors do show that targets of Akt show characteristics of Akt activity when Akt is ...


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See the instances of "selective advantage / pressure" from the source provided by Jonathan, emphasis mine: Persistent infection with HPV leads to an environment of genomic instability and local immune suppression, which can lead to both the accumulation of genomic alterations in the host cell, as well as to the integration of the viral genome into ...


1

The mass of a biological molecule is evaluated by the process of Mass Spectrometry (specifically MS/MS or MALDI-TOF). These are an improved version of Mass Spectrometry(MS) and results from the works of physical chemists.In a nutshell, you can ionize the molecule. It dissociates into several ionized particles. Then subject them to a magnetic field and an ...


0

Why are proteins that will be exported to the outer of cell are not made in the ER directly? What is the function of ER in intracellular protein synthesis? What is the purpose of co-translational transport? This is a eukaryotic cell that we are talking about.Once the mRNA is synthesized , it has to move out from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.During its exit, ...


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please have a look at this article and its images. R. J. Jackson et al., 2010, Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 11:113. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrm2838 In a nutshell, recognition of mRNA by ribosome occurs in multiple steps.Interaction of mRNA with (eukaryotic) initiation factors(eIF) leads to this. eIF4 complex interacts with mRNA and then an ...


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Yes ,there are some patterns. First you have to determine which group of membrane proteins you're talking about. According to Molecular Cell Biology Lodish et al 8th ed chapter 13, there are 6 types of ER membrane proteins ( and therefore in the cell membrane) The 6 types are type 1,type 2 ,type 3 , type 4,Tail anchored proteins ,GPI anchored proteins. ...


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It is used to determine whether the unused/excess amount of plasmid has contaminated the final solution of the desired recombinant DNA or not. Electrophoresis is performed on the "Blank"(uncut) plasmid to define its bands.If the electrophoresis result contains the bands of both "blank" and recombinant DNA , it shows that your solution ...


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The M.DNA mutates about 1% in a million years, and because our Mt-Eve is 150,000 years old, our mitochondria are 0.15% different, or 99.85% the same globally, and 99.95% the same in Eurasia. The variation of mitochondrial DNA between different people can be used to estimate the time back to a common ancestor, because mitochondrial DNA accumulates mutations ...


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The mitochondrial genome has a nonzero mutation rate, though estimates differ according to method. Estimates are approximately 10^-8 per bp per year on average, and the mt genome is ~20,000 bp. So we can do some math and expect that many (or most) people experience heteroplasmy, which is to say that they carry various different mitochondria (in the same ...


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Run length means how far the mitochondria move, each time they move. The article this references is: "GSK3β Is Involved in the Relief of Mitochondria Pausing in a Tau-Dependent Manner". This article has a figure showing the distances in micrometers, although I have trouble working out interpreting the error bars on the graph to see if the distances ...


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The answer to the first part of your question is: diffusion. After transcription and some processing, the eukaryotic mRNA is exported to the cytoplasm. Here it floats around until it meets a ribosome. Binding of ribosome to mRNA is facilitated by proteins called initiation factors (IFs) and the 5' cap of mRNA$^1$. The second part of your question basically ...


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