Studies on model organisms suggest effects begin quickly, within 6-8 hours of exposure. Rat studies suggest liver absorption of dioxin reaches a maximum from 8-24 hours, with Cytochrome P450 protein expression levels peaking afterwards. Another study uses a comet assay that measure DNA damages after six hours of dosing, and damage is tied to dose level.
Integrating the information from @WYSIWYG's excellent answer, it appears the dopaminerig neuron count lies at:
4k for mice - Triarhou, 1988
10k for rats - German and Manaye, 1993
250k-440k for humans - Rice et al, 2016
No, p53 and other tumor suppressor proteins do not belong to Cyclin dependent kinase(CDK)family. p53 blocks the cell cycle by promoting the synthesis of Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CKI proteins). These CKI proteins bind with the Cyclin and CDK complex and inhibit the cell cycle at G1 checkpoint.
(Image Source: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/...
How about non-target cells? I found several examples of that usage including:
A book section titled: 9.3 How are steroid hormone target cells differentiated from non-target cells?1
Containing the following line:
Thus, estrogen will stimulate mRNA and protein synthesis in a target cell, but not in a non-target cell.
A book chapter titled: Target or non-...
Actin is a polar, dynamic filament formed of protein subunits. These subunits associate together and align in the same direction to form a polymer which has two distinct ends.
And these protein subunits have charge which is responsible for actin polarization.
Moving against a concentration gradient simple means; substance moving from a low concentration to a high concentration.
Moving down (desending) the concentration also means; substance moving from high concentrated area ta a low concentrated area.