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Autoimmune reactions each have their target antigens. They'll "attack" wherever those antigens are expressed. In the case of Type 1 diabetes, many specific antigens have been identified, and they all correspond to regions on the surface of pancreatic islet β cells. Ultimately, however, the immune reaction is targeting proinsulin and its processed ...


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Good morning, in order to assemble your TAG oligos by PCR you will need to redesign your primers so they are complementary to the TAG oligos as DNA polymerases work by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of a DNA strand. So your design would look like this : Now with this design you won't be able to assemble everything together as TAG-3 complementarity to ...


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I would suggest using Gibson assembly. I am not an expert but this is the kind of problem that it is designed to solve. Probably there is some way to do this by PCR but I expect that it will be quite finicky. See this quote from that page (my emphasis): Tip: “Stitching” Fragments Together using Oligos When you need intervening sequence between two PCR ...


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All you need is the Nernst equation and the voltage across the membrane. The answer you get from Nernst is the equilibrium potential for the ion of interest. This is the potential at which the concentration and electrical gradients are exactly equal for that ion. If the voltage across a membrane is at the Nerst potential there is no net passive flow of the ...


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The answer to Question 1 is: The ribonucleases responsible for digesting removed intron RNA do not recognize the miRNA as such. They are unable to digest it because (or to the extent that) it assumes a double-stranded structure, as they are specific for single-stranded RNA. The answer to Question 2 is briefly: By the same mechanism as the many microRNAs ...


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In this article on sciencedirect.com epithelial skin cells are described as the products of epithelial multipotent stem cells and/or unipotent "progenitor" cells (which I presume is a way of describing a stem cell that only produces one type of cell - in this case an epithelialor skin cell). The epithelial multipotent stem cells can produce a ...


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I didnt read beyond the paragraph about your study books situation, Euryhaline on wiki reveals tiny euryhaline fish... 4-5 cm Fundulus heteroclitus which presumably can withstand salt changes as juveniles, 2-3cm. Probably there are species a lot smaller because individual cells perform the osmotic rebalance, and cells are much bigger thans water and salt, so ...


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The effects of mutations As have been already pointed out, mutations are neither good nor bad - they are simply changes in the DNA sequence. The effects of mutations on humans and viruses are rather different, since humans are multicellular organisms - mutations in one cell do not affect the whole organism, but only this cell (except for the germline ...


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Mutations of the genome are neither bad nor good. They alter. If the product of this alteration is advantagious to the virus or any organism, they may gain some advantage to reproduce better. If the alteration is deleterious, it may be bad for the virus and any organism. With humans you see bad results with viruses not (they are too small).


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The mRNA vaccines encode a mutant version of the spike protein in which the structural transition needed to to fuse membranes is blocked. This was done to make the immune response focus on the pre-fusion state, which is much better for neutralizing the virus. From https://cen.acs.org/pharmaceuticals/vaccines/tiny-tweak-behind-COVID-19/98/i38: Fortuitously, ...


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Mollies , there are a few kinds , many are 2 to 3 " , live in fresh or salt . They seem to prefer fresh but often live in sea coast areas where tides ,etc. may cause intermittent changes between fresh and salt ( and brackish of course) . I used black mollies to start a salt water tank, I had a couple in the salt for months because it was not easy to ...


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Although any number estimation would be inaccurate, I can think on two factors that can influence the count. Cells location: Pain is trigger when specialize cells (Nociceptors) fires action potentials. The density of those nociceptors is greater in the tip of your finger than in your back. So the number of cell damage that trigger the pain would be ...


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I think I may be able to answer my own question here. The ability to have OH groups that form hydrogen bonds with adjacent cellulose molecules implies that the tensile strength will be high and accounts for the property that cellulose is strong.


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Gibson Assembly is not ideal for short fragments; chances are that the T5 Exonuclease will digest your entire fragment before it has the chance to hybridize with the backbone. For fragments shorter than 200 bp NEB recommends a 5-fold excess to compensate for this, but in your case the fragment would only be around 130 bp long. It might work, but efficiency ...


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When I was learning genetics for the first time I have also found naming the two chromatids joined at centromere as chromosome a little bit strange. The number of DNA molecules and their behaviour in cell cycle seemed to me more important for understanding of genetics. What you need to understand.is the term chromosome predates knowledge of DNA structure. ...


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I'll directly go to your fourth question, as all of them can be answered with a yes. This rather old mouse paper already got to the point. Sadly, only the abstract is freely available. Briefly, the number can be variable in the smallest unit you are interested in, the cell type. From the abstract: The distribution of the number of nucleoli in many diploid ...


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