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Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are identical in ultrastructure. The only reason for two different terms for the same thing is historical usage. Traditionally, 'cilia' has been used for shorter, more numerous structures and 'flagella' for longer structures which are fewer in number. Although cilia and flagella are the same, they were given different names ...


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These resources may help. This book, “Plasmids of Eukaryotes”, explains that... “The possession of plasmids was for a long time recognized only in the bacteria. It is now evident that plasmids, or replicative forms of DNA structurally and experimentally comparable to bacterial plasmids, exist in eukaryotic organisms as well. Such plasmids are in fact common ...


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Perhaps you mean that flagella spin to provide locomotion whereas the cilia tubules themselves beat. the flagellar motor vs the fixed anchored structure of the cilia...


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Welcome to SE.Biology! It is often helpful to do a little internet research such as e.g. googling your question. I googled it and it gave me this image, which tells me that G0 cells leave from and re-enter G1 phase.


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The interesting thing is that the mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of many subunit proteins, both encoded by nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. It has long been unclear exactly how these synthases are assembled, and what differences exist between bacteria, yeast, and humans - where ATP synthase formation is normally studied. Regardless, each of these ...


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Seems like they are the same. I found the below by using the search terms of "genbank oct3" I see the names and splicing variations at: "Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology" http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/GC_POU5F1.html and also see a statement calling it oct3/4 at: https://www.spandidos-publications.com/...


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The best review I can find is the one by Wang and Dai 2010, conveniently titled starting with "Concise review". From the beginning of the abstract: The human OCT4 gene can generate at least three transcripts (OCT4A, OCT4B, and OCT4B1) and four protein isoforms (OCT4A, OCT4B‐190, OCT4B‐265, and OCT4B‐164) by alternative splicing and alternative ...


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This ref. says that the plastids and mitochondria are still intact. Found by searching for "sieve cell development" Neuberger, D.S., Evert, R.F. Structure and development of sieve cells in the primary phloem ofPinus resinosa . Protoplasma 87, 27–37 (1976). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01623956 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01623956


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There are proteins (in truth, small peptides) released by neurons, but these are not the most typical or canonical type so I don't know where you got that information. Wikipedia has a list. Most are amino acids or derived from amino acids. They are transported into vesicles and then released when these vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane. ...


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Campbell Biology (11th edition) states that proteoglycans are up to 95% carbohydrate.


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Felber and Brand 1982 estimate the intracellular T-cell chloride concentration to be about 30 mmol, which seems to me to be on the high end for intracellular chloride in mammalian cells (though my experience is mostly with neurons, I'm not as confident of intracellular chloride concentrations in other cell types; for a neuron I'd expect <10mmol). Still, ...


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Most viruses of human concern are "enveloped", that is, they are surrounded by a lipid membrane. This membrane is usually what determines the shape of the outer layer, and is intrinsically flexible, so most human viruses would be able to deform a bit to fit through a hole. Additionally, the size of individual enveloped virus particles tends to vary ...


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