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This question deserves a thorough answer, but in the meantime, at least for the domestic cat (a carnivore), its basal rate of amino acid catabolism does contribute significantly to its dietary requirement for amino acids. I would predict that the "basal rate of amino acid catabolism" has been the major driver for the evolution of nitrogenous waste management ...


This is an interesting question. A recent study published on bioRxiv by researchers from Xi'an, China (pre-print) argues that CD147 can also be an entry receptor for the virus. They showed virus entry can be blocked by an antibody to human CD147.


The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of the largest continuous membrane bound organelle of the cell. The rough ER and smooth ER share the same membrane and some membrane proteins can diffuse between them. At the same time there are specific markers for ER sheets (rough ER) and ER tubules (smooth ER). The terminology of rough and smooth come from early ...


Even a male cell can count the number of X chromosomes. (Lee et al. 1996; Cell 86: 83-84) When X inactivation is getting started the two chromosomes "kiss" - a process that lasts for a couple of hours (first shown by Jeannie Lee in 1996). The physical contact between two X chromosomes is over a small fraction of the chromosome but it's essential for ...


There is a negative correlation between growth temperature and genome size for prokaryotes, which may be driven by selection for smaller cell size overall in warmer environments. Sabath et al., 2013 provide a good discussion: Smaller cells tend to have smaller genomes in both prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes (Shuter et al. 1983; Lynch 2007), for ...


From this answer to a similar question one can derive that between a hematopoeitic stem cell and a mature blood cell there may be up to 16 generations (with 216 ≈ 70,000).


From my searches, there is no single resource that includes an atlas of all human proteins produced across all human cell types. However, there are several recent mass spectrometry studies that look at cell-type-resolved proteomes for specific human and mouse tissues that provide some insight into the distribution of proteins across different cells. A ...


Intuitively you would think "Muscle Stem Cell" sounds like a more general term. But indeed they refer to the same thing according to Nature

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