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As far as I can tell, they do not (readily) cross the plasma membrane. This paper, "Cell-Penetrating Peptide-Functionized Quantum Dots for Intracellular Delivery", discusses strategies to deliver quantum dots into cells. These include: Passive delivery done by coating the quantum dots in something that allows them to be endocytosed more readily (...


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The first amino acids For how life arose from no life, the Miller-Urey Experiment demonstrates how in primordial Earth conditions, a spark in the atmosphere (analogous to lightning) could have initiated synthesis of the many of the same amino acids (and amines) life uses today. My understanding was that the spark broke some bonds between the gases (and water ...


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Here is how I think of the issue. First, keep in mind over the course of the action potential, ion concentrations on both the outside and inside of the neuron remain relatively unchanged. You can think of the Nernst potential as a charged battery, and they keep their concentrations relatively constant. Currents will flow, and the voltage will change, but ...


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I have read that the general definition for puncta is a small, distinct point. That's correct. From my understanding, puncta are dots. However, I was wondering whether puncta is a synonym for clusters of a protein In the context of fluorescence microscopy, a punctum (plural puncta) does not specifically refer to the aggregation of proteins. Any small, ...


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The answer to your question is huge and still evolving, involving whole fields of scientific research. The general process of how cells develop macro-structure forms is known as morphogenesis. Within that realm of study, the science of "evo-devo" (evolutionary and developmental biology) is closely tied to the question that you've asked, as it turns ...


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I was aware that mature red blood cells (RBCs) lose their nucleus, ER and Golgi apparatus. However, I wasn't sure about the centrosome! Centrosomes, being MTOCs (microtubule organising centers), have known functions beyond those in cell division. Some are cell type specific! So be wary of thinking that all cells that do not undergo mitosis lack centrosomes. ...


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As Wikipedia page for Centrosomes says- Centrosomes are associated with the nuclear membrane during the prophase stage of the cell cycle. During mitosis, the nuclear membrane breaks down, and the centrosome-nucleated microtubules can interact with the chromosomes to build the mitotic spindle. Since RBCs do not have a nucleus, so no nuclear membrane and no ...


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One of the advantages you already stated that depending on protein of interest if it's already expressed in CHO cell line, researchers use that. Apart from that, this question is more of a general type. I will try my best to logically put down the things. You are right, it's more appropriate to study proteins using cultured neurons. But, there are many ...


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