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Personally, I find these distinctions a bit silly but I also understand they have some use. People sometimes divide neuroscience into molecular, cellular, and systems levels of understanding. Molecular covers all the "one cell" phenomenon: expression of particular receptors or related proteins, for example. Cellular is one step above of molecular and ...


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NRAS is indeed a molecular switch, as part of the MAP-Kinase signaltransduction pathway it acts in controling the signal which goes downstream and finally will cause the expression of genes. In the case of NRAS this includes genes for proliferation, which is important for tumors. In principle, this looks like shown on this figure (from here): RAS (this is ...


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Good discussion, very complex topic. I’m not sure we know/understand all variables and interactions at play in circulatory/respiratory physiology(not to mention aspects of the RBC involved). That said: Without a nucleus(and mitochondria), the red cell has less tendency to metabolize whatever O2 is available, as well as many of other well stated advantages ...


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This is a hard question to answer because each type of cancer is a whole different game at the molecular level, however there is something you might be interested in called "hallmarks of cancer" (image 1) which are key features for cancer to thrive. They were originally described by Hanahan and Weinberg (2000) and have been revisited by Fouad and Aanei (2017)...


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