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There are lots of biological clocks, or clocks made of biological components. The circadian clock is an important, though complicated, example. There are excellent engineered clocks that form some of the neatest examples of systems / synthetic biology. See for example Elowitz & Leibler's "repressilator" (link, link). The basic idea in all of these is to ...


It depends how you define it. Many early cell lines (as well as some modern ones) were derived from tumors. Tumors are spontaneously immortalized cells which became immortalized in vivo. If you're asking how often researchers collect primary cells (non immortalized) and grow them with the hopes they will become immortal the answer is pretty much never.

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