87

Surely it would be even more beneficial for plants to be black instead of red or green, from an energy absorption point of view. And Solar cells are indeed pretty dark. But, as Rory indicated, higher energy photons will only produce heat. This is because the chemical reactions powered by photosynthesis require only a certain amount of energy, and any ...


34

I believe it is because of a trade off between absorbing a wide range of photons and not absorbing too much heat. Certainly this is a reason why leaves are not black - the enzymes in photosynthesis as it stands would be denatured by the excess heat that would be gained. This may go some of the way towards explaining why green is reflected rather than red ...


21

There is quite a fun article here which discusses the colours of hypothetical plants on planets around other stars. Stars are classified by their spectral type which is dictated by their surface temperatures. The Sun's is relatively hot, and it's spectral energy distribution peaks in the green region of the spectrum. However the majority of stars in the ...


19

Mitochondria evolved before chloroplasts. We know this because Mitochondria form a monophyletic group: e.g. all life with mitochondria traces back to a single common ancestor (source). Since the group with chloroplasts groups within this clade, it must be the case that either (a) chloroplasts were obtained by an organism that already had mitochondria or (b) ...


19

According to "Resolution of distinct rotational substeps by submillisecond kinetic analysis of F1-ATPase" (Yasuda et al., Nature, 2001), ATPase rotates at 130 revolutions per second when saturated with ATP.


17

I think @mbq has covered the frequency question better than I can. There is at least one modern example of this kind of new organelle formation. Aphids have a deep, intracellular endosymbiont Buchnera involving some genome transfer that has developed in the last 200 million years. There are many articles about this topic (eg: Nature from 2000), and it ...


16

Most of ornamental (often variegated ) plants do performs photosynthesis. They do have chlorophyll even if their color is not green. They have non-green color due to various different pigments. These extra color has their own functions like blocking harsh sunlight or protection from insects (Karageorgou and Manetas 2006). In many non-green plants ...


14

There are two factors at play here. First is the balance between how much energy a plant can collect and how much it can use. It is not a problem of too much heat, but too many electrons. If it were a question of heat, a number of flowers selected for their black pigmentation would have their petals cooked off. ;) If a plant does not have enough water, is ...


11

The reason that chlorophyll is green is because it absorbs other colors of light such as red and blue, so in a way the green light is reflected out since the pigment does not absorb it. Because life might have been purple: It is possible that the very first life form to process light may have been purple colored. This would mean it was reflecting red and ...


10

The biologist John Berman has offered the opinion that evolution is not an engineering process, and so it is often subject to various limitations that an engineer or other designer is not. Even if black leaves were better, evolution's limitations can prevent species from climbing to the absolute highest peak on the fitness landscape. Berman wrote that ...


10

I know this question was asked and answered a number of years ago (with many great answers), but I couldn't help but notice that no one had approached this from an evolutionary perspective (like the answer to this question)... Short Answer Pigments appear as whatever color is not absorbed (i.e, they appear as whichever wavelength(s) of light they ...


9

Yes, it is possible, but not necessarily the case. Non-green leaves with chlorophyl: There are leaves that don't appear green, but do have chlorophyl and therefore can conduct photosynthesis. (See, for instance, refraction effects in white caladiums or the link in the answer by Resonating). Non-green leaves without chlorophyl: There are leaves that don't ...


7

According to my knowledge, this was the molecular and cellular evolutionary path of life. Synthesis of essential building blocks (fatty acids, aminoacids, cofactors...) Condensation of building blocks First RNA replicase; RNA genomes (differentiation between genomic and functional RNA, primitive metabolism) Ribosomes and first matrix dependent ...


7

I do not have a definitive answer but I can argue that mitochondria came into existence before chloroplasts despite the fact that, between their free living ancestors- $\alpha$-proteobacterium and Cyanobacteria, the latter seems to be older in evolution. I have following points to support this argument: The organisms that have chloroplasts also have ...


7

What is difference between plastid, chloroplast and mitochondira? Plastid is a general term for an organelle which consists of Chloroplasts, Chromoplasts, Leukoplasts/Amyloplasts and Apicoplasts. Chloroplasts (Chloro = green) are involved in photosynthesis; they express Chlorophylls and have the thylakoid structures which are involved in the electron ...


6

It depends of what you call endosymbiosis. In the sense of mutualistic interaction between host cell and intracellular organism, it also include Rhizobium bacteria and Fabaceae plants, some Cnidaria and algea in their cells, and even some micorrhizal fungi that invade into plants cells. But parasitic interactions are also sometimes call symbiosis, as ...


5

There are several parts to my answer. First, evolution has selected the current system(s) over countless generations through natural selection. Natural selection depends on differences (major or minor) in the efficiency of various solutions (fitness) in the light (ho ho!) of the current environment. Here's where the solar energy spectrum is important as ...


5

Have you considered that it might be algae? (I think it is.) There are many kinds of algae. I couldn't tell you which one yours is. Algae Under Microscope


4

You can say that but chloroplasts do not have uniform morphology across different species. Moreover some organisms such as red algae have chloroplasts of different origin. Real indicator would be lets say number of chloroplast ATP synthases and/or light harvesting photosystems; these can be perhaps indirectly approximated by the total surface area of the ...


4

To answer your bigger question: Yes, most of this is possible - under some conditions -, and animals and animal cells can acquire chloroplasts, and use them. E.g.: see Elysia chlorotica whose cells actively take up chloroplasts and use them, and keep them alive (though not replicating). - Though some genes of algae are also contained in the Elysia ...


3

The answer lies in the protein composition of mitochondrial membranes, which undoubtedly prove that the outer membrane (OM) is of alphaproteobacterial origin, and the phagosomal membrane (if there was any) is lost. Though the endosymbiotic origin is without question, bear in mind that the phagocytotic origin is still debated (cf. López-García & Moreira ...


3

They do have chlorophyll, at least in general. There are a couple very rare exceptions, but if it can stand up on its own, it contains chlorophyll. The green is just washed out by a very bright red pigment.


3

As @wysiwig already pointed out the different morphology of chloroplasts is something that is hard to come by. This influences the amount of chlorophyll in these organelles which is the key for photosynthesis. So it is very difficult (to impossible) to compare chloroplasts of different plants as they differ pretty much. There is one paper from 1929 which ...


3

The answer above goes in depth so I will try go off that. Firstly, lamella is the word used to describe plate-like structures. A thylakoid therefore, being a flattened vesicle, would fit this description, so a thylakoid is a type of lamella. As mentioned earlier, a lamellar system consists of uniform thylakoids, the thylakoids being the individual lamella. ...


3

Protein import to chloroplasts (and also mitochondria) can still have multiple destinations, because these structures themselves have sub-compartments: both have an inter-membrane space as well as an 'inner space' (the stroma in chloroplasts, matrix in mitochondria). proteins can also be targeted towards either of the two membranes additionally chloroplasts ...


3

It is glad to say that we can enter to this question due to having of valuable theorem of 1st law of thermodynamics. Energy cannot be destroy but it can convert in to another type of energy.The chlorophyll molecule decide it to, become photo energy to chemical energy. while happening the electron transport chain electrons are going through the primary ...


2

There are evidences of secondary endosymbiosis i.e. organelle within an organelle. This is quite evident in Chromaveolates. Many unicellular Chromaveolates which had been classically referred to as unicellular Algae, have chloroplasts derived from other algae. This organelle in turn has a membrane bound suborganelle. For a quick reference you may see this ...


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