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7

This question is too broad. What type of temperate forest? The European Environment Agency recognized dozens of temperate forest types: Acidophilous oak and oak‑birch forest types Mesophytic deciduous forest types Beech forest types Mountainous beech forest types Broadleaved evergreen forest types Floodplain forest types Non‑riverine alder, birch or aspen ...


6

There does not appear to be a current standard, but Veg-X is a standard that has been developed to facilitate exchange of plot-based vegetation data, and may provide the closest to what you are looking for. Veg-X is described in Wiser et al 2011 and the project home page is http://wiki.tdwg.org/Vegetation/ From the abstract: The exchange standard for ...


6

Do dogs and humans communicate? What about cats and dogs? I think defining "communicate" is the real question here. This 2012 study claims to show "the first experimental evidence that the interception of heterospecific vocalizations can mediate interactions between different cetacean species in previously unrecognized ways". In other word, one species is ...


6

Try out using Google Scholar to take a more scientific literature-based approach to your search. Frick et al. (2009)1 found that about 42% of logerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) stomachs contained remnants of G. atlanticus. We were able to identify G. atlanticus in the diet of loggerheads because whole or nearly intact specimens were present. ...


5

The Jacobian tells how the system changes along different state variables (which can be, for instance, the concentrations of the predator and the prey). The Jacobian matrix by itself doesn't give you a lot of intuitive information. However, the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix at the equilibrium point tell you the nature of the steady state. For example ...


5

Forest Succession 101 Pines are actually fast-growing, shade-intolerant, early-successional species. When land is allowed to lay fallow after being cleared by fire, wind storms, human land use or other major disturbance, the successional sequence will begin. At first only herbs and grasses grow, but eventually these are shaded out by shrubs and tree ...


4

I mostly concur with @Nathan's answer, and in particular with the references he provided. As Shannon & Simpson indices can be hard to interpret and can be non-intuitive, I prefer using Hill diversities as suggested by Nathan (the Jost 2006 and 2007 refs are great to read up on this). The main argument is that Hill diversities give effective number of ...


4

The Details Ecological communities are groups of multiple (2+) species of either plants, animals and/or other organisms that interact in a unique habitat. More accurately (from Wikipedia and corroborated by Begon et al. (2006)), we can define an ecological community as an: assemblage or association of populations of two or more different species ...


4

There can be perhaps 10 trillion rodents and bats on the planet, so the humans and livestock probably are small compared to a rainforest rodents and bats. The biggest bat colony is 40 million, they decline without unmanaged forests, can reach 4-10 bats per hectare, and the world population might normally be in 10s of billions, save for the use of pesticides ...


4

In an environment where all plants are resistant to certain parasites, a rare breed which has a mechanism against this resistance has free play - lots of food and no competition. However, in plants which do not have the resistance, this rare parasite breed may be at a disadvantage compared to parasites who do not have the mechanism against that resistance (...


4

As pointed out by @bshane it seems your question is answered by the definition. From the relevant wikipedia articles "A seral community (or sere) is an intermediate stage found in ecological succession in an ecosystem advancing towards its climax community." and "In ecology, climax community, or climatic climax community, is a historic term that ...


4

I took a class in ordination methods a few months ago and found the following books helpful in better understanding the various techniques: Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Primer by Brian Manley https://www.crcpress.com/Multivariate-Statistical-Methods-A-Primer-Fourth-Edition/Manly-Alberto/p/book/9781498728966 Correspondence Analysis in Practice by ...


3

John Harte's work on applying the mathematical theory of maximum entropy to ecology is certainly one of the better known examples of the application of this area of mathematics to science, in part because he literally wrote the textbook: Maximum Entropy and Ecology: A Theory of Abundance, Distribution, and Energetics (Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution) ...


3

Theoretically the index for two habitats of different areas are not directly comparable. Consider the species area relationship. You see more species when you look over a larger area. So you will potentially see a different index just from considering a larger area, and not necessarily because there is something different about the habitats. Borda-de-Agua ...


3

I think the wikipedia article defining parasitoids has it right on this one. The term is, and should be flexible and it's definition defined by context. i.e Case by case definitions are made obvious in the literature. Patently there is no point to trying to draw arbitrary lines of distinction between such vague, and often variable, life histories. In each ...


3

You're thinking too broadly and rigidly about these concepts -- both commensalism and mutualism are types of interspecific interactions. Commensalism is when one species in a given interaction is benefited while the other is neither benefited nor harmed. In a mutualistic interaction, both species benefit from their interaction with each other. Like any ...


2

In nature, species compete for resources like water, light, nutrients, etc. and need to find 'their place' in this struggle. According to niche theory, every species occupies a certain spot in the multidimensional niche space (the dimensions describe the number of environmental factors) where it performs better than any other species. If there would not be ...


2

The methods should be equivalent, given the same data. Using phylosignal's demo: library("picante") library("phytools") set.seed(5) randtree <- rcoal(20) randtraits <- rTraitCont(randtree) phylosignal(randtraits[randtree$tip.label],randtree) phylosig(randtree, randtraits[randtree$tip.label], method="K",test=TRUE) phylosignal returns: K ...


2

There is a really good discussion of this in Chesson & Kuang Nature 2008, they propose a way to measure niche complementarity accounting for competition and predation.


2

I don't know if lambda for estimating divergence times works in the same way as it does for scaling internal tree nodes, but I'm going to assume it does given the context of your question. My gut reaction was: of course it must because K is the ratio of observed to expected variance and tip variance is moderated in part by branch lengths. So if you change ...


2

Pianka's index of niche overlap is defined in his papers from 1973 and 1974, as: $O_{kl}=\dfrac{\sum_i^n{p_{il} p_{ik}}}{\sqrt{\sum_i^n{p_{il}^2} \sum_i^n{p_{ik}^2}}}$ where $O_{kl}$ is the resource overlap between species $k$ and $l$, and since the index is symmetric $O_{kj} = O_{lk}$. $p_{ib}$ represents the proportion of resource $i$ that is used by ...


2

Let me offer my answer even though I have not worked in ecology. You are asking two questions if I understand you correctly: Should you normalize to the area sampled? The answer to that depends on whether the area sampled is a nuisance variable or not. Is it the case that you just happened to sample from areas with (largely) different sizes? Or do you ...


2

You might want to check out Mike Palmer's webpage on ordination, specifically the constrained ordination section: http://ordination.okstate.edu/ The main difference between constrained ordination techniques is the distances that are preserved. Redundancy analysis (RDA) preserves Euclidean distances, so in order to use it, you need to transform your OTU ...


2

More detail on what your studying, the question you want to answer, and how you want to go about doing it would be very helpful. But I can answer this basic question of how to select tree's with a transect. You will need: Forms to fill out for data. A compass. A transect tape (really a very long tape measure, about 100 yards or meters). A sampling design ...


2

First, the setting for this question is almost always related to explaining some aspect of broadly defined trait differences in extant (currently-living) species. The specific problem at hand is one in which someone is trying to explain what may drive the observed differences among competitors. It is unclear whether such differences are relatively recent (...


2

A food web is a representation of who eats whom. A qualitative food web provides for every pair of vertices just the information whether or not one feeds on the other. This can be represented e.g. by some directed graph with a set of vertices $V$ and a set of arrows $A$ between the vertices. An arrow has the form $$a: v_1\rightarrow v_2$$ for some ...


2

In Sweden, no clear evidence have been found for interactions between wolf and European bobcat (Lynx lynx), see Wikenros et al, 2010. There, they have studied effects of wolfs on the survival of Lynx kittens, spatial movement of Lynx and Lynx' homerange size. The study finds no significant difference in any factor with/without wolves. They also speculate ...


2

You might also want to consider: Tree diversity analysis by Kindt and Coe 2005. Freely and legally available here. Not very deep but nice and crisp introductions + its free. Numerical Ecology with R by Borcard et al. 2018; https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-7976-6 Little brother of Legendre and Legendre 2012. Excellent book with many ...


2

For the scenario you laid out, the short answer is yes. Like @theforestecologist pointed out, interactions can be complex and contingent. Although, in the example you give, it can be easily tested: grow plants with spiders and without, and see if there is a difference in plant fitness. Fitness can be measured directly by looking at, for instance, the ...


1

The vegan package is suitable for your needs, but you may find you need to use others or code your own functions. Due to sequencing biases, you shouldn't trust the 'raw' counts of your OTUs (unless you have a good reason to do so—I'm not sure how your OTUs were obtained). Rather, you may consider relativizing your site-by-species matrix. You can do so ...


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