6

Do dogs and humans communicate? What about cats and dogs? I think defining "communicate" is the real question here. This 2012 study claims to show "the first experimental evidence that the interception of heterospecific vocalizations can mediate interactions between different cetacean species in previously unrecognized ways". In other word, one species is ...


6

Try out using Google Scholar to take a more scientific literature-based approach to your search. Frick et al. (2009)1 found that about 42% of logerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) stomachs contained remnants of G. atlanticus. We were able to identify G. atlanticus in the diet of loggerheads because whole or nearly intact specimens were present. ...


3

You're thinking too broadly and rigidly about these concepts -- both commensalism and mutualism are types of interspecific interactions. Commensalism is when one species in a given interaction is benefited while the other is neither benefited nor harmed. In a mutualistic interaction, both species benefit from their interaction with each other. Like any ...


2

For the scenario you laid out, the short answer is yes. Like @theforestecologist pointed out, interactions can be complex and contingent. Although, in the example you give, it can be easily tested: grow plants with spiders and without, and see if there is a difference in plant fitness. Fitness can be measured directly by looking at, for instance, the ...


1

The matrix above depicts the signs of the partial change of a function with respect to each species. Because there are 4 rows and columns, this means there are 4 species. Each row represents a partial change in each of the 4 differential equations representing the rates of change for each species with respect to each species, which is each column. To rewrite ...


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