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2

You have it wrong. Coronaviruses are part of a family of viruses that are called "enveloped viruses". These all have an "envelope" comprised of a lipid layer derived from the host cell as the virion exits. The envelope is distinct from the spike. The spike protein is produced by the virus during replication and is not found naturally in a ...


1

Generally based on (1). To quote the website: The variants that are cause for most concern may: spread more quickly, evade natural or vaccine-related immunity, cause more severe disease, evade detection by available tests, or are less responsive to treatment. If you look at the features they say they look for in variants, the one they mention first is &...


6

Well, we can work this out empirically. We know that the average molecular mass of a base of a RNA is 339.5 g/mol. However to calculate the approximate molecular mass of a single-stranded RNA molecule, you multiply the number of bases by 320.5 and add 159 (same source). This means for a single-stranded molecule of 1000 bases, it will have a molecular mass of ...


3

I'm not going to give you the final answer, because this is still a class assignment, after all, but I'll give you some tips. What you are looking at is a Western blot of whole-cell extracts from a cell line called Vero, either on its own (vertical ane 9, from numbering across the bottom) or infected with various viruses carrying specific genes, as indicated....


6

No, this is not possible, as the vectors used for the vaccination cannot replicate anymore. Some of the genes necessary for this step have been removed from the viral genome to prevent the uncontrolled spread and replaced by the spike protein which is used as the antigen for the vaccination. To replicate the virus in the production process, a special cell ...


-2

Viruses "breed" (replicate) within infected cells, not within masks. Other kinds of microbes such as bacteria could breed within masks provided they find substances they can feed on in this environment. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_replication Sars-Cov-2 has been shown to survive for extended periods of time (hours) on various types of ...


1

Actually, neither A nor B in the example are a correct interpretation of a false positive rate, because there isn't enough information provided to determine a false positive rate. In the terminology of clinical diagnostic testing evaluation, testing outcomes can be classified into one of four fundamental categories: True positive, false positive, true ...


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