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29 votes

Why are more children being hospitalized with Covid-19?

Right now, at least, it's not clear whether anything significant has changed biologically for children with respect to the Delta variant. What is known for certain, however, is that Delta is very ...
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29 votes

Are fully vaccinated people more likely to not get infected at all with COVID-19?

Yes, this is the effect of the vaccine. A reduction of infections of over 88%, a reduction of severe cases and death by 95% and higher. See reference 1 for the details. Data from the ReCoVAM Study ...
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23 votes
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Was the Harcourt COVID-19 isolate paper ever published?

It was published in June of 2020 by Emerging Infectious Disease under a slightly modified title. (It's not uncommon for journal editors and/or peer reviewers to require changes to the title of a ...
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22 votes
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Can the SARS‑CoV‑2 virus mutate in people who have been fully vaccinated?

Since vaccination is not 100% protective against infection (i.e. the virus can sometimes succeed in establishing and replicating in a vaccinated host's body), the answer is yes. Furthermore, since ...
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15 votes
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Validity of report of reverse-transcription of Covid-19 vaccine mRNA in cultured human liver tumor-derived cells

Re: Intracellular Reverse Transcription of Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine BNT162b2 In Vitro in Human Liver Cell Line by Alden et al. ( Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. 2022, 44(3), 1115-1126; https://...
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9 votes
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Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

The spike proteins expressed by cells that take up mRNA or ChAdOx vaccines are modified so they cannot induce membrane fusion. However, the research article you refer to indicates that circulating ...
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9 votes
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How many mRNA strands are in a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccines?

Well, we can work this out empirically. We know that the average molecular mass of a base of a RNA is 339.5 g/mol. However to calculate the approximate molecular mass of a single-stranded RNA molecule,...
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8 votes
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How is SARS-CoV-2 'deactivated' for some Covid vaccines (for example Covaxin)?

For Covaxin (BBV152), SARS-CoV-2 was inactivated by treatment with β-propiolactone [1]. β-propiolactone reacts with and modifies, among other things, nucleic acids, thus preventing their replication [...
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6 votes
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How is mRNA made in a lab

In the case of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, the mRNA is synthesized by in vitro transcription. The gene of interest (e.g. the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein) is cloned into a plasmid and transcribed by RNA ...
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6 votes
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Can the spike protein created by the Covid mRNA vaccines be created independently of the human body, and is there a higher cost to that?

What you describe, creating the spike protein independently and delivering it, is exactly what is done by subunit vaccines, such as the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Novavax. As already noted in @...
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5 votes
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Do the primers used for Covid-19 test work with all new strains?

I TRY to answer. First of all, no we cannot be 100% sure that the primers are effective against all strains. However, the strains that are under media attention right now are due to variants in the ...
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4 votes
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Searching for a vaccine vs searching for poor genes in the covid-19 pandemic

Unfortunately your assumptions are almost completely incorrect. The reasons some get sick and die and others don't are multi(multi)factorial. There will be some genetic component, but also things like ...
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4 votes
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delta coronavirus: Why isn't similar viral load in vaccinated people causing as severe adverse effects as in unvaccinated people?

I believe the news report you cited is not accurate in its reporting. Of course, it's not actual science, and we will wait for the release of the actual science, but here's my understanding (which ...
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4 votes

Do the primers used for Covid-19 test work with all new strains?

No, some strains contain mutations causing partial or complete failure of amplification of at least one of the test targets. Here's an FDA bulletin on the issue from January: https://www.fda.gov/...
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4 votes
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Can spike protein induced cell fusion be triggered by the mRNA vaccine?

The mRNA vaccines encode a mutant version of the spike protein in which the structural transition needed to to fuse membranes is blocked. This was done to make the immune response focus on the pre-...
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3 votes
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What is the nature of false negatives on Covid-19 Lateral Flow Tests?

Is it simply that whatever the testing "pallet" does has a random noise component to it, and sometime you get unlucky? Is it that the sampling process is noisy, and thus sometimes you get ...
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3 votes

Any evidence that getting a covid booster works for omicron?

The Omicron variant of SARS-Cov-2 is still so new, that until the last few days there has been no statistical raw material on clinical experiences and patient-data to show what protective effect is ...
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3 votes
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CCTV cameras in Microbiology (Pathology) Laboratories

No - cameras would not capture the detail of the experiments being performed, nor would many of the experiments make sense without some context for the individual labels, if the camera could see them. ...
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3 votes
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SARS-CoV - relative size of the spike protein

I'm not going to give you the final answer, because this is still a class assignment, after all, but I'll give you some tips. What you are looking at is a Western blot of whole-cell extracts from a ...
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3 votes
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Detection of primer dimer on RT-PCR?

This is a bit complicated from far away, but I will share a few thoughts on it. The occurence of primer dimers depends on the design of the primers (sometimes they are inevitable due to sequence ...
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3 votes
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Is there any chance that the COVID-19 virus could become more deadly by it interacting with the HIV virus?

While some viruses, such as influenza, can indeed hybridize to form different strains, you should not worry about SARS-CoV-2 hybridizing with anything but another coronavirus. They are simply too far ...
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2 votes

delta coronavirus: Why isn't similar viral load in vaccinated people causing as severe adverse effects as in unvaccinated people?

First of all there is one error in the article: Vaccinated people do not get infected anyways. Vaccination prevents somewhere between 80-90% of infections (see reference 1). There is no perfect ...
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2 votes

Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

Funny how only the Chinese financially sponsored this research you're talking about, despite the fact that the paper has some American co-authors. Anyway, it's the dose that makes the poison. This ...
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2 votes
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Has anyone tried the petri dish experiment with and without mask but at the side?

While I'm not sure about the petri dish experiment, I will answer the main question I think you're asking: how important is the air that escapes out of the sides/top of the mask? This question is ...
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1 vote

If you catch Covid-19 infection, does it need to become vaccinated after recovery?

Yes. Studies on reinfections consistently show that a booster vaccination after an infection further reduces the risk of contracting COVID-19 a second time. The recommended time interval is 6 month ...
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1 vote
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Does a vaccine reduce the contagion "efficiency"?

Each individual case will be different, but in general it is useful to ask "why did the vaccinated person still catch the Covid disease?" If they caught the disease because the vaccine had ...
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1 vote
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Does the false positive covid-19 PCR % referred to by Surkova & Nikolayevskyy in The Lancet mean % of all tests, or % of positive tests?

Actually, neither A nor B in the example are a correct interpretation of a false positive rate, because there isn't enough information provided to determine a false positive rate. In the terminology ...
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