6

I was musing on this and did some strange googling, and have some ballpark figures for a bunch of different organisms. It's far from a complete answer but it's at least a start, and all this won't fit in a comment. DNA replication, I assumed, was a huge metabolic drain on the cell. Turns out that is far from the case. Many helicases are passive, requiring ...


5

Oocytes do not have centrioles. During fertilization, the centrioles of the sperm become the centrioles of the zygote. Only one pair is needed, as there is only one cell (i.e. zygote) right after fertilization.


3

While eukaryotes contain tubulin-containing microtubles and actin filaments, prokaryotic homologues do exist. For example FitZ protein, the most common bacterial Tubulin homologue[1], is involved in cell division. Genes for this protein are actually present in eukaryotic nuclear DNA and the protein facilitate the division of the mitrochrondria and ...


3

According to this paper: From the Latin word vimentum, used to describe arrays of flexible rods,both ordered ones (e.g.,latices,filigres,and wicker-work) and non-ordered ones (e.g.,brushwood). Vimentin: Filigree art:


3

The other inhibitors work on other processes, as you already noticed. There is almost no difference between the conditions when they are added and the corresponding condition when they are missing, suggesting those other processes play no role in the observed phenomenon. Eliminating those other processes makes it more believable that actin polymerization is ...


2

When you work with living cells, there are usually more pathways which can be affected, when you start treating the cell a drug. To make sure, which pathway is specifically inhibited, you need these controls, as an inhibition of any of them could theoretically have the same effect: Protein synthesis (cycloheximide) as this provides new actin monomers which ...


2

Interesting question. The term anterograde refers to movement in the forward direction. In the context of vesicular trafficking, anterograde refers to (1) movement from the site of protein synthesis in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) towards the Golgi and then (2) movement from the Golgi towards the final destination in the cell. Both processes rely ...


1

1) Can cells survive without any of the different cytoskeletal components? Yes, most certainly. At least for actin and microtubules (MTs) there are plenty of eukaryotic cell types that can survive without them. MTs can be disrupted by cold-shock (see for example here https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16505977). How well the cell survives depends on the ...


1

It is stated that out of all eumetazoans in Kingdom Animalia, only arthropods do not contain such structures. I found this paper(1), eliciting an exception (within an exception)- Isotomurus maculatus: Here, we report the first evidence for the expression of a cytoplasmic IF protein in an arthropod - the basal hexapod Isotomurus maculatus. This new protein, ...


1

The critical concentration is better defined as the "equilibrium concentration of the pool of unassembled subunits"1. An analogy that might be helpful is thinking about a NaCl (table salt) solution — once you add enough salt some will start to precipitate, but the amount in solution will remain the same. You can think of the solution as having the capacity ...


1

a. Membrane proteins are responsible for both cell to cell recognition and cell anchoring and are stabilised by linking through to the microtubulele cytoskeletal fibres. Not entirely correct as you yourself pointed out that integrins attach to actin filaments. b. A protein that is enzymatically active and membrane-bound will function significantly ...


1

Microtubules polymerise from and depolymerise into alpha-beta-tubulin dimers. Both happen on both ends, see this question: At which end does polymerization of microtubules occur?.


1

Reading the specified Wikipedia article about Centrosome, actually explains why centrioles are NOT IMPORTANT for the PROGRESSION OF MITOSIS. To better understand what wiki meant, let us look at both centrioles & centrosomes. According to Biology Pages for Centrioles and Centrosomes >> Centrioles are built from a cylindrical array of 9 microtubules, ...


1

There are desmosomes and gap junctions (cell-cell-contact), and hemidesmosomes (cell-basal membrane-contact) which enable a stable united cell structure. I'm not so aware with this topic, but I found some papers which may help you :) Intermediate filament in cell architecture Desmosomes and hemidesmosomes Review on gap junctions Blood-testis barrier and ...


1

When a cell enters the cell cycle and passes through S phase, each centriole is duplicated. A "daughter" centriole grows out of the side of each parent ("mother") centriole. Thus centriole replication — like DNA replication (which is occurring at the same time) — is semiconservative.


1

There are many things involved in the pairing of homologue chromosomes. Before mitosis can occur an important prerequisite must happen: the division of centrosome. This small complex is the principal microtubule-organizing center in the (animal and therefore human) cells. During interphase the microtubules originating from the centrosome, project to the ...


1

A significant amount of heat generated by the cell does not come from the hydrolysis of an NTP. ATP is generated by a H+ gradient in the mitochondria, and this gradient is created by mechanisms which rely only in part by ATP. Most of the energy stores in our bodies are not in the NTP pool. This is why CO₂ and urine are used to measure energy expenditure ...


1

Polarity essentially means a plus end (growing/polymerising) and a minus end (depolymerising). Look at microtubule (MT) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microtubule). So molecules such as Kinesin-1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinesin) use the hetero-dimeric nature of MT (alpha and beta subunits) and its polarity to orient themselves and move directionally ...


1

Browsing around GEO, I see 13 experiments focusing on microtubule disruption in yeast. This CHIP-CHP experiment actually uses nocodazole. This is a microarray experiment with benomyl treatment. The rest focus on specific mutants that try to perturb the microtubules in specific ways. What's more if you broaden the search there is an extensive body of ...


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