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Two classes of factors contributing to spinogenesis have been described in the literature, based on whether they can be considered extrinsic or intrinsic to the dendrite (my classification). Here is a shortlist of evidence in favour of either: A. Extrinsic: the presence of extracellular glutamate facilitates spine formation in tissue from very young mice (...


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An earlier source for an estimate of ${[Ca]_{i}}^{+2}$ in spines comes from hippocampal slices of P13-P19 rats (Majewska et al. 2000). The resting ${[Ca]_{i}}^{+2}$ in this paper was ~80 nM and a back-propagating action potential (AP) elicited a response up to ~250 nM (change of ~170 nM). They included $F_{min}$ and $F_{max}$, the minimum and maximum ...


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