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Without access to the 5th edition of The Molecular Biology of the Cell I am relying on the section in the 4th edition which describes proofreading, and specifically Figure 5.9, which I have reworked in a linear manner so as not to occupy too much space on the page: If this is, indeed, the section to which the poster refers, the problem is one of ...


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Sorry, but I can't comment (<50 rep). Dyad Chromosomes, as you say, are only formed during Cell Division (Mitosis and Meiosis). They are not present during the interphase, when DNA rests in the nucleus in an uncoiled state. If you know about transcription (your question suggests so), this much should have cleared your answer. If not, then see this or this ...


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There are a lot of assumptions implicit in the system you describe, all of which need to be addressed prior to any serious discussion of your method's feasibility. Sequence a bunch of normal patient cells. Sequence a bunch of tumor cells from a biopsy. Find a DNA sequence that we're reasonably certain exists in the cancer cells but doesn't exist in normal ...


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From comment. Could you be more specific about what you mean by "hybridization", e.g. Southern blot? This is the old-fashioned technique that I believe is closest to what you mean. Slot blots are also possible but somewhat less interpretable. Both are still used occasionally for various reasons but each is much, much more work than PCR. Southern ...


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As I have already mentioned in the comments, the mutation rates are indeed different, at least in some viruses. As an example we can take HIV, where pol, gag, and other genes essential for viral replication and interference with the cellular machinery are singificantly more conserved than the env gene, coding for the viral envelope. Mutations vs. ...


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The answer is that drugs and vaccines do different things. Drugs treat the problem (sometimes before it starts - this is known as a prophylactic), whereas vaccines are intended to prevent the problem from starting in the first place, so vaccines are a form of prophylactic themselves. One of the problem with drugs is that the vast majority of them have some ...


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