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3% and 99.9% are from different calculation method. 20% (a rough estimation, might be wrong) of neanderthal DNA survived in the modern human genome, but it is 'diluted' by the human population, which lead to 2 percent of neanderthal DNA in each human genome. This is the number 3%. But how can we know it's neanderthal DNA? If DNA fragment contains ...


PCR results in double stranded DNA. During Sanger sequencing, single primers are used to amplify each of the two strands separately, so that one strand can confirm the other.

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