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If the query genome is unknown, a microarray cannot be made for a target species. Microarrays have DNA fragments of what you want to amplify on them. Those fragments must be known. From nature: DNA microarrays are microscope slides that are printed with thousands of tiny spots in defined positions, with each spot containing a known DNA sequence or gene. ...


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Ok, I think I can answer somewhat usefully with the update. It's helpful in this case to think in terms of sampling alleles. It's true that the cases that you give are not 100% unambiguous, but it is not true that we can't give a somewhat confident estimate. We can still make a statistical prediction of the most probable genotype. The first thing to note is ...


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The effects of mutations As have been already pointed out, mutations are neither good nor bad - they are simply changes in the DNA sequence. The effects of mutations on humans and viruses are rather different, since humans are multicellular organisms - mutations in one cell do not affect the whole organism, but only this cell (except for the germline ...


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When I was learning genetics for the first time I have also found naming the two chromatids joined at centromere as chromosome a little bit strange. The number of DNA molecules and their behaviour in cell cycle seemed to me more important for understanding of genetics. What you need to understand.is the term chromosome predates knowledge of DNA structure. ...


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