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The bacterial cell wall is quite porous, and is not considered a permeability barrier for most small molecules. It mainly functions as structural support and to resist turgor pressures. The average pore size of relaxed peptidoglycans were measured to have a radius in a range of about 2.0 to 2.5 nm, regardless of thickness (i.e. Gram + and Gram - bacteria ...


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Yes, normal DNA extraction protocols fragment genomic DNA. In my experience, extracted DNA tends to have a size distribution on the order of 10 - 20 kilobase pairs (kbp), independent of the protocol and source organism (assuming a chromosome size >> 20 kbp). This seems to be corroborated by what I can find online -- see the gel below from Successful ...


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Short Answer: No, for CRISPR/Cas9 knockout you do not need to add donor DNA. Little bit more detail: CRISPR/Cas9 allows you to cut at a given position (defined by the gRNA). This will lead to double strand breaks (DSB). If you do not add any donor DNA, the cell's DNA repair mechanism will try to repair the double strand break. Since these CRISPR/Cas9 ...


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Replication proceeds in both directions from a single origin of replication, so the same strand acts as both the leading or lagging strand for the two different replication forks.


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A very naive approach would be to simply ask how many copies of the sequence in question are in the hg38 sequence, at some level of homology. You could do this using a tool such as BLASTN (which has a web interface that you can use to search against a human genome) or, if you have the sequences downloaded somewhere where you can work with them, using a tool ...


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As you know, chromosomal DNA has two strands, with each strand running in opposite 5' <-> 3' directions. When a chromosomal segment is inverted, both the 5'->3' sequence and its complementary 3'->5' sequence from the other strand are inverted together. When reattached to the two strands it came from, the segment will have effectively switched its ...


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