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6

The premise of the questions suggests that mutations cannot take place in the mRNAs of higher eukaryotes. To answer your question I think it is important to consider two viewpoints: First, from a theoretical point of view, since DNA and RNA are as you pointed out composed of nucleic acids, they both can be mutated if enough energy is provided (UV light, ...


4

This is a VERY hard question to answer; I think mostly because it is very hard to think about how the DNA actually encodes information. The first important thing to note (and also the only direct answer I can give to your question), is that (Yes) the human genome does encode all information to make a human being, but only in the context of a cell/organism ...


3

You abosolutely can have mixed populations of mitochondria in a cell (it is in fact very common). Therefore when you sequence the mtDNA you will get a completely variable percentace of reads containing a variant from close to 0% to 100% (there is a lower limit based on the quality and read depth of the sequencing data). You can't consider the variants to be ...


2

Polymerases uses a two-metal ion mechanism to carry out the addition of a new NTP to a growing RNA strand. Two Mg2+ ions are used in this process; metal ion A is involved in the formation of the nucleophile (O-) for the SN2 reaction to occur and metal ion B is involved in the stabilization of the transition state in the reaction. For the addition of a NTP to ...


2

You're asking if cells arose with 100% replication accuracy and if lower accuracy was selected for under a feedback loop. Maybe there was a sweet spot for DNA replication accuracy in terms of efficiency, but it's highly unlikely that our ancestor cells had 100% fidelity in DNA replication because if we look at yeast for example, there are many genes ...


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There is previous research for that field of macroevolution.... Horse shoe crabs change slowly and tropical fish change fast. You are right, it's not just random variation, it's fine tuned by DNA transcription processes which are too developed to be random, so the complexity of the processes leads scientists to think "WTF" regarding epigenetics, ...


1

In short, no evolution is not a result of variation. Evolution is a process in which each population in a system compete for a limited number of resources and each population has a fitness score (how well suited for the environment they are, this score is a man made concept to help illustrate the point), the populations with a higher fitness score tend to ...


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Additionally DNA is inherently more stable due to the removal of the hydroxyl group from the C2 carbon on the ribose making it less reactive. This could be pointed to as an example of the limiting factor in the inherent complexity of any organism that uses RNA instead of DNA for long term data storage. That would be a discussion for another thread though.


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