102 votes
Accepted

Does the string "...CATCAT..." appear in the DNA of Felis catus?

The Felis catus genome has been published, annotated, and updated quite a bit since 1996, including spans of so-called intergenic regions, which are basically scaffolding and other structures, along ...
MattDMo's user avatar
  • 15.3k
66 votes

Does the string "...CATCAT..." appear in the DNA of Felis catus?

While Matt's answer is perfectly correct, it is important to note that the sequence $(CAT)_n$ in DNA is not restricted to cats, and you would expect to find it anywhere. For example, searching the ...
March Ho's user avatar
  • 9,452
44 votes
Accepted

Why aren't there any competing biologies on Earth?

There are indeed almost certainly other potential alternatives to DNA-based biology and the RNA-based biology that may have predated it, which could be used to form viable organisms. Many of them ...
jakebeal's user avatar
  • 6,977
44 votes

How do proteins 'know' where to go?

Even though this animation is very well-known and the narrator says it is "... an accurate representation of the actual DNA replication machine ...", be very careful of its visual appeal. It ...
Domen's user avatar
  • 1,932
38 votes
Accepted

Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

It is not only possible, these vaccines are in active development. Biontech (the company which developed the Comirnaty Corona vaccine) was founded to develop vaccines against cancer, Moderna is ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.6k
26 votes

What does it mean to "write an image and GIF into the DNA of bacteria"?

The image was not in the DNA as such, only as an abstract representation that could be converted into an image from knowledge of the code. Briefly, they encoded the image into DNA, using a couple of ...
iayork's user avatar
  • 14.2k
25 votes
Accepted

Are there examples of cells with more than one nucleus?

Are there examples of cells with more than one nucleus? Yes, they are called Multinucleate cells. There are two types of multinucleated cells Syncytia Coenocytes I highly recommend having a look at ...
Remi.b's user avatar
  • 68.1k
24 votes

How does DNA still work after recombination?

One must always be careful not to stretch an analogy further than it can withstand, but since you started these analogies, I will follow up on them and explain the small mistake you've done in their ...
Remi.b's user avatar
  • 68.1k
23 votes

Is TTGATATAT a gene?

This is a very lazy (biologically) "programmer's definition" of a gene. It would be like if you found a biology textbook that said "a program in C is everything between main( and )"...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.7k
20 votes
Accepted

How do we know Neanderthals DNA?

Neandertal DNA has been completely sequenced multiple times now, using DNA from bone and tooth samples found in cool or cold environments. The first Neanderthal genome sequence was described in 2010: ...
iayork's user avatar
  • 14.2k
19 votes

Is a DNA molecule a single strand of polynucleotide or two of them linked together?

Hmm, I think that the teacher is actually correct and that the previous explanation, although very nicely referring to text book diagrams, is a little misleading. The issue here is the nature of a ...
Dr Newman's user avatar
  • 191
18 votes
Accepted

Has the acronym DNA ever been widely understood to stand for deoxyribose nucleic acid?

First off, that paper is the seminal discovery and publication of the structure of DNA, and is absolutely worth the read. It's one of the most important pieces of scientific literature. The short ...
Amory's user avatar
  • 9,681
18 votes
Accepted

Is Chimpanzee mitochondrial DNA identical to human?

While the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from humans and chimpanzees is not identical, it is highly similar. The nucleotide difference between the complete human and chimpanzee sequences is 8.9%, the ...
Chris's user avatar
  • 51.6k
17 votes
Accepted

Is Chargaff's rule really applicable?

In addition to Remi.b's answer, it should be noted that the phage Phi X 174 is the only organism in your list which significantly deviates from Chargaff's Rule (by more than 1-2 percentage points for ...
March Ho's user avatar
  • 9,452
17 votes
Accepted

What does it mean to "write an image and GIF into the DNA of bacteria"?

Just to add what might have been missing in the beautiful answer by @iayork. I just want to give a more simple picture of the encoding done in the E. coli DNA. First for the rigid strategy in which 4 ...
another 'Homo sapien''s user avatar
17 votes
Accepted

How does DNA still work after recombination?

Homologous DNA recombination does not swap parts randomly in the sense that any two bits of DNA can swap places. DNA recombination is random in the sense that it may or may not occur. In fact DNA ...
user40949's user avatar
  • 186
16 votes

Does the string "...CATCAT..." appear in the DNA of Felis catus?

To augment the other answers, let's compute the probability of CATCATCATCAT occurring in random DNA sequence. Cat DNA length is 2.7 gigabases (source), and there are 4 possible bases. For 1 CAT there ...
jpa's user avatar
  • 301
16 votes

How do we know Neanderthals DNA?

The answers here give you reference to the first draft genome. Take a look at these papers for high-quality sequences: Prufer et al., 2014 for Altai Neandertal, Meyer et al., 2012 for the Denisova ...
AlexDeLarge's user avatar
  • 2,868
15 votes
Accepted

Can DNA be considered as a fractal antenna?

I looked at the original paper, Blank and Goodman "DNA is a fractal antenna in electromagnetic fields" Int J Radiation Biology, 87:4, 409-415, DOI:10.3109/09553002.2011.538130. To be honest I can't ...
Ben Bolker's user avatar
  • 5,354
15 votes

Is it possible to make a vaccine against cancer?

Might not be the answer you're looking for, but there's already a vaccine for one particular type of cancer - cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is largely caused by a virus though (HPV, Human ...
Allure's user avatar
  • 547
14 votes

Can a blood type O be born from AB and A parents?

The ABO blood type is controlled by a single gene (the ABO gene) with three types of alleles inferred from classical genetics: i, IA, and IB. The IA allele gives type A, IB gives type B, and i gives ...
KaPy3141's user avatar
  • 1,597
14 votes

How are cells different depending on the ethnic origin?

The article is particularly concerned with personalized/precision medicine: tailoring therapy to specific individuals based on their genetic background. The article is in particular talking not about ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.7k
13 votes

How did the first life form on Earth reproduce without DNA?

So earth is estimated to be around 4.5 billion years old, and life has existed for about 3.4-3.9 billion years of that, around >75% the time. For a little perspective, Homo sapiens have been around ...
rg255's user avatar
  • 16.1k
13 votes
Accepted

Computer Virus that infects DNA?

As I understand from your post, the computer virus you are talking about is modifying database (FASTA files) in genetics. That would have a pretty bad impact on research in genetics and medicine. If ...
Remi.b's user avatar
  • 68.1k
13 votes
Accepted

Why should we use the NA12878 dataset for benchmarking?

So to clarify for people unfamiliar with NA12878, that's the sample identification for a particular Utah woman. Her parents are NA12891 and NA12892. In human variation data-sets that's what we are ...
Artem's user avatar
  • 837
13 votes
Accepted

Assembling small DNA parts using Golden Gate

Purely going off experience here having used golden gate assembly methods for 5+ years now, there is a definite lack of literature regarding small part assemblies. In my current lab, we use CIDAR ...
J.E.Bird's user avatar
  • 316
13 votes

How long does DNA last in wood?

DNA can remain intact in wood, enough to perform useful identification, for centuries (this study had success with wood from ~1300 AD). However, successfully extracting DNA from the wood may be ...
Darlingtonia's user avatar
  • 2,582
12 votes
Accepted

Why DNA needs histones to be packaged and ordered?

Sort of like having one of these: instead of this: Surely you could simply wrap DNA up in a coil, but to do it in a neat fashion that allows you to package and repackage sections as needed, it's a ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
  • 45.7k
12 votes
Accepted

Why is thymine not incorporated into mRNA?

Nice question! But sadly, it comes under the category of questions about which we don't know everything yet. We don't yet know how RNA Polymerase differentiates between uracil and thymine while adding ...
another 'Homo sapien''s user avatar

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