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1

Adding to what the two other answers have said, normal DNA fingerprinting tests do not tell the researcher how many chromosomes the organism has. That is part of a different process called karyotyping. However, karyotyping is actually surprisingly low-tech, people have been karyotyping for years before genetic sequencing was even a thing. That said, it is ...


4

The first person to directly indicate a linkage between the hereditary material and enzymes was Garrod in 1902, based on the observation of the hereditary enzymatic disorder alkaptonuria. This is after Mendel's death. The tetranucleotide hypothesis (i.e. DNA is not informative) that you refer to seems to have been formulated around 1910. So there is no way ...


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So far as I'm aware, the big distinction right now is whether you want dsDNA or oligos. If you often want lots of oligos, then getting your own synthesizer likely makes sense. Run the numbers and see what the time for return on investment will be and you'll see if it works for you financially. If you want gene-scale dsDNA, you're currently generally better ...


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A few baseline ideas should be understood. 1. The assumption is made that Meselson and Stahl's cell line at the start of the experiment contains DNA composed entirely of the $N_{15}$ isotope. 2. DNA with a greater proportion of $N_{15}$ isotope is denser than DNA with lesser proportion of $N_{15}$ isotope. 3. Higher density DNA sinks lower in the test tube ...


3

It seems to me that "genic" is a perfectly good word. This paper uses "genic" directly as a contrast to "intergenic", so that seems like a reasonable precedent: ‘Noncoding DNA’ can be found both surrounding genes, and within genes (see schematic Figure 1). We will call the first type ‘intergenic’, and the second type ‘genic’, a ...


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because fractals are emergent structures created by simple rules, as are many biological structures. The same kind of simple recursive signals that lead to fractals are simple enough to be stumbled on by biological evolution and are effective ways to deal with the scaling problems created by the square cube law. https://www.complexityexplorer.org/system/...


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Essentially, eukariote cells use internal and external signalling hormones, so the cells can have a front/back/top/bottom end and can orient themselves at specific angles using signalling hormones, which also travel outwards through chains of cells and form signalling hormone concentration gradients. Eventually, when the gradient reaches a certain level, it ...


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Firstly, it is necessary to note that fractals are not unique to live things: for example, a seashore is an example of fractal structure (with theoretically infinite length). In regard to trees and broccoli, it is necessary to note that fractal structure maximizes the area, given the same volume, as opposed to other shapes (e.g., a spherical organism would ...


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EF1-alpha is considered a ubiquitous/constitutive promoter; it is effective in all animal cells and tends to provide strong expression. Embryonic (and other) stem cells are more difficult to target than other cells because they don't express genes under the cell-type specific promoters that are often used for other populations of cells, which is why you're ...


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