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I think, the graph you indicated, might saying the following matter: Let's take an example. " Some snails and fish go into aestivation to avoid summer-related problems-heat and dessication." Now, when summer comes after the season Spring, the temperature gradually rises. The fishes can generally withstand upto a threshold limit of temperature, ...


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I do not believe that galls are categorically non-mutualistic. However, as noted above, ant domatia (of acacia at least) are not galls, the trees produce them in the absence of ants. However, the size and number of domatia seems to be mildly inducible by the presence of their symbiotic ants. But back to galls as mutualistic, my argument is that seemingly ...


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The answer by @SMcGrew is essentially correct, but let me add a technical term (at least in the context of infectious diseases): the bacteria and viruses a carried by vectors. Since word vector is a kind of overused, even if we limit ourselves to biology, it is also common to be more specific and call the disease vectors. Vectors are classified into ...


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The growth of the yeast can be studied with a Logistic model (i.e. differential equation) as follows: $$ \frac{dX}{dt}=\mu X \left(1 - \frac{X}{X_{max}} \right) $$ This is an ordinary differential equation that tells you how the population of yeast is changing with time (in fact is telling you how the concentration of Yeast $X$ changes with time). The two ...


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