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An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that detects electrical activity in the brain using small, flat metal discs (electrodes) attached to the scalp. The brain cells communicate via electrical impulses and are active all the time, even when you're asleep. This activity shows up as brain waves on an EEG recording (1).

An electroencephalogram (EEG) is an electrophysiological test that detects synchronized electrical activity in the brain using electrodes attached to the scalp. The brain cells communicate via electrical impulses and are active all the time, even when you're asleep. This activity shows up as brain waves on an EEG recording (1).

An EEG is one of the main diagnostic tests for epilepsy. An EEG may also play a role in diagnosing other brain disorders (1).

Sources
(1) Mayo Clinic