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In general, action potentials are initiated by an inflow of Na+ that depolarizes the neuron. Only after that, K+ channels open up that re-polarize the membrane potential to get the neuron back in business for a next action potential. In a way, the K+ channels open only at the tail end of the action potential, Na+ leads the potential change (Fig. 1). Here is ...


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I don't know much about the effects of anesthetics, but I have taught basic nerve function at university level, so I hope I can help a little with that part. Potassium flow does not start an action potential - on the contrary, increased potassium flow makes it harder to depolarize the membrane and initiate an action potential. A brief explanation on membrane ...


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The GHK voltage equation also known as just "Goldman equation" is always valid for determining the voltage at which the net current is zero, given internal/external ion concentrations and their permeabilities. This includes times during the action potential, though the result you get from GHK will be changing faster than the actual membrane ...


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I think the simplest answer to your question is that you're correct in thinking passive flow would be what changes, but the reason behind it is important to understand. I'd recommend looking at UT Health's neuroscience online resource where they break down action potential propagation in an understandable way. The main takeaway is that the space constant is ...


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I'll try to answer the sub questions 1-by-1 Does that mean that the change in membrane potential that I did resulted in changes in the conformational states of ion channels which in turn changed the membrane potential that I need to control ? It's the other way around; your book is right - "When the membrane potential is suddenly increased by this ...


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None of the three scenarios you describe are really different from another. Whatever process is used inside the amplifier, a voltage describes a potential difference between two points. It does not relate that to any other universal reference. If you have a ground connection, you could describe a different potential relative to ground, but that's not ...


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The situation is quite reminiscent of a Voltage clamp experiment (Fig. 1), where one amplifier (amplifier 1 in Fig. 1) records the potential difference (V1 - V2 in Fig. 1) between two electrodes and the other opamp (2) is used to inject current (I2 in Fig. 1) to 'clamp' the system at a particular voltage using a computerized feedback system. The potential ...


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