Questions tagged [endocrinology]

The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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What is the evidence that women experience a larger cortisol spike than men, when they see domestic clutter?

I'm reading a book "The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload" by Daniel Levitin. At the beginning of chapter "Organizing our homes" he says that ...
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Why both with the hypothalamus in the thyroid-hormone secretion pathway?

The release of thyroid hormones into the blood is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Briefly: Cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus detect low ...
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Why does activity cause hypoglycaemia in diabetics?

(I'm from the UK so I'll be using mmol/L as units and taking <4.0 as hypoglycaemia.) I remember being told that I should consume a small amount of sugar or reduce insulin dose sightly to increase ...
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Why do we not develop tolerance to endogenous factors?

In pharmacology, we studied the development of tolerance to the therapeutic effects of drugs. It is defined as the diminished response of the body to a drug as an adaptation to its continued presence. ...
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How is an extreme insulin overdose counteracted

I just watched this comedy skit that went - Trainee: I just gave him 10 of insulin Doctor: 10 what? Trainee: 10cc Doctor: * look of terror * As a diabetic myself I know that 10cc or 1000u is an insane ...
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What is the actual mechanism of the birth control pill?

I've been trying to figure out through online sources (I don't own any medical textbooks) what the exact mechanism behind the birth control pill (henceforth "the pill") is, and I am often ...
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Is inhibin hormone secreted by corpus luteum in females?

In females, I have studied that corpus luteum secretes mostly progesterone, but some of estrogen, relaxin and inhibin too. But in some of the books they say that inhibin is not secreted by corpus ...
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Is “random arousal” in humans still caused by/connected to “background” sex drive?

I’m not sure if the title is the best way to word the concept but I don’t know how else to put it briefly; though honestly this question itself might be a bit hard for me to communicate concisely in ...
pastina's user avatar
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Why do so many pollutants affect the estrogen receptor?

We make loads of chemicals, and release them into the environment for reasons. We have loads of hormone receptors. There are many instances of human made chemicals affecting the estrogen receptor, ...
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Are there any affordable devices for measuring ghrelin levels at home, similar to blood sugar monitors?

I'm interested in finding an affordable medical device that can measure ghrelin levels, similar to how blood sugar level monitors work. I understand that ghrelin level measurements typically require ...
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How is melatonin production related to proteins produced by clock genes?

I am a high school student learning about feedback mechanisms. My teacher gave an example of how proteins produced by clock genes are related to melatonin production. However, I'm confused about the ...
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Is ghrelin only secreted when the stomach is empty?

Several texts indicate that ghrelin is secreted when the stomach is empty. However, some(not all) texts also indicate that ghrelin is secreted when blood sugar levels are low. Is the second statement ...
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What is the difference between growth hormone and growth factor

What is the difference between growth factor and growth hormone? I am aware of the fact that hormones are directly poured into the blood stream and that the growth factors can be released by non ...
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What makes humans feel cold?

I have seen various sources talking about the effects of oestrogen on temperature: all of them agree that it makes you cold but they seem to explain the reason differently. One states that oestrogen ...
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Auxin-what happens to the auxin chemicals if the Sun is just above the plant?

The Auxins goes to the shady side for the elongation of the cell. This moves depending on the direction of sunlight. But, what happens to the auxin chemicals if the Sun is just above the plant?
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Why does oestrogen go from inhibitory to stimulating LH/FSH?

Typically in the menstrual cycle, oestrogen is released from the follicle. The oestrogen goes on to the hypothalamus to have an inhibitory effect on releasing more GnRH and LH/FSH. However, when all ...
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Is menopause a design or a degradation?

Does menopause appear to be a designed or an accidental phenomenon? We might say it is "designed" if there is a biological process that triggers it. Like menarche, where something genetic ...
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How does the female body sense its own pregnancy?

I understand that after the fertilized ovum attached in the uterus the female body will not produce the required hormone surge for ovulation the next month. Therefore no new ovum will be sent down the ...
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How to reduce PPi concentration in blood samples by PPase

I have some samples of whole blood that are a little bit expensive and I want to significantly reduce the concentration of PPi in the samples by causing a reaction. I don't have any experience in ...
Mikkel Rev's user avatar
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Cortisol in sharks

Is there an established method for measuring stress hormone levels, like cortisal, in sharks? If so, is it known what levels of such hormones create significant detrimental effects like decreased ...
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Does hormone participate in metabolic activites?

strong text My take on question- All hormone are not water soluble, some are fat soluble also so this option is definiely wrong. Thyroxine Hormone is do stored in the body in Follicle of thyroid ...
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What is the term for the physical and behavioral changes that occur in an adult species due to the change in their hierarchy?

For example, when a chicken becomes a rooster its crest becomes larger and their feathers become more colorful. Dominant male lions get larger and darker manes. Also, can these changes also occur ...
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Why does (insulin induced) hypoglycemia stimulate ADH secretion?

Intuitively, I understand that ADH (Anti Diuretic Hormone) is responsible for maintaining osmolarity, and increased serum osmolarity is a stimulatory factor for its release-- ADH increases water ...
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Can oxytocin travel from one cell to another via gap junctions?

Oxytocin is a 9-residue secreted peptide. As a hormone, can it travel through gap junctions, assuming that it is stored in pre-synaptic neuronal vesicles?
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Differentiating between hormones triggered on specific types of happiness?

Achievement:- Dopamine Applause:- Seratonin Discovering something new:-? Remembering something after a long time/struggle:-? Nostalgia:-? Lust ;-Testosterone/Estrogen Romantic Love:- Dopamine? ...
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Can caffeine act as viagra

Recently I studied that cAMP which is a 2° messenger can cause various physiolocal changes under the action of proper hormones. Now cAMP is degraded by phosphodiesterase and this ceases the actions. ...
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Why hypothyroidism causes body ache?

In the condition of hypothyroidism the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone level is high in individuals. What signalling/metabolic pathway mediates this sensation of pain which is mostly experienced in feet ...
Sucharita Chatterjee's user avatar
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Do hormones make it more likely to perceive sexual forms in otherwise non-sexual objects? [closed]

People can see sexual forms in many things. It seems that this varies with age, but this is not enough to claim it is because of sexual hormones. The question is: is it?
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Is Pars intermedia functional in humans?

My textbook says, "Pars intermedia secretes only one hormone called melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)." My teacher says that in humans MSH is secreted by the anterior lobe because the ...
Neerav Singla's user avatar
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Do circadian hormones fluctuations follow sleeping patterns or the time of day?

It is said that testosterone and cortisol are at their highest early in the morning, at 8 am, and lowest at night. What happens, though, if someone regularly goes to sleep at 8 am and wakes up in the ...
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Hormonal effects of Luteinizing hormone on endometrium

What is the effect of luteinizing hormone on the endometrium? A general answer to this query is that it only thickens it. The same could also be said for the effect of Follicle stimulating hormone (...
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Apparent paradox in Glucagon action

Glucagon stimulates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, thus increasing the plasma glucose concentration — so that tissues get enough glucose in the fasting state. However glucagon also inhibits ...
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Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
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Why severely increased Ligand (eg Hormones) concentration downregulates the Receptor?

As an example continuous high blood level of GnRH in humans causes a suppression of LH and FSH. This is due to the fact that increased GnRH downregulates GnRH-Receptors . My question is how this is ...
ANA negative's user avatar
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Glycogenolysis & Gluconeogenesis

Is glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis is the same in the terms of product formed? This doubt arrived when I was attempting true & false and the question was Glucocorticoids stimulate ...
A learner's user avatar
7 votes
3 answers
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Steroid hormones: how do they travel through the cytoplasm (not just the blood plasma) if they're hydrophobic?

I get that steroid hormones need hydrophilic plasma protein carriers (eg albumin, TBG) to travel in the plasma because they're not soluble in the plasma. However, I don't see any sources talking about ...
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Why isn't there T2 thyroid hormone?

The follicles in the thyroid, intake iodine and bind them onto the tyrosine rings (attached to the thyroglobulin). This produces either MIT or DIT (tyrosine rings with 1 or 2 iodines attached ...
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How does exercising/starved muscle import glucose (released by liver)?

Adrenaline releases glucose from the liver during sport or if starved. This glucose goes to the blood through GLUT2 transporter. But how does it get transported into the muscle cells? GLUT4 is the ...
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Why is the thyroid gland in the neck?

The neck seems like an odd place for it. All other neck anatomy must interface between the head and abdomen (trachea, esophagus, circulation, spine etc). Surprisingly I have not been able to find ...
Doug's user avatar
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What is the function of dreaming? Does a particular hormone secretion interfere with dreaming? Why do some people dream more?

I'm really interested to know when we are sleeping how a series of stories come to our mind that we called this process dreaming. If you know a useful article on this topic, please tell me thanks.
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Why do patients with type 2 diabetes not show the body wasting seen in type 1 diabetics?

Type 1 diabetes results from the destruction of the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, while type 2 diabetes is characterized by so-called "insulin resistance", presumably a reduced ...
kjo's user avatar
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Why would it be beneficial for cortisol and corticosterone to exhibit pronounced anti-inflammatory activity?

These questions are always a little silly (as we will never truly know), but it always struck me as odd that corticosterone and cortisol exhibit pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. Because these ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Why is angiotensin converting enzyme localized in the lungs

I understand that it's also found elsewhere, such as in renal capillaries, but I can't see logic behind it being located in the lungs. Isn't ACE's function, through making more angiotensin II, causing ...
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Are hormones antigenic?

I have been asked whether hormones are antigenic. I would have to think that the answer is no because they are used as various drugs such as FSH in infertility treatments without the need of ...
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Differences between neurotransmitters and neuromodulators

According to the Wikipedia article on neuromodulation a neuromodulator can be conceptualized as a neurotransmitter that is not reabsorbed by the pre-synaptic neuron or broken down into a ...
Hans-Peter Stricker's user avatar
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Effect of angle of light on flowering of plants

I understand that the angle of light changes the direction of growth in plants (phototropism), but would the angle of light have any effect as such on the flowering of plants? Thank you!
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What are cells not affected by hormones called?

Cells that are affected by hormones are called target cells which have their own receptors that listen to signals. I'm unsure of the actual name of cells that are not affected by hormones, I tried ...
Mike's user avatar
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How does the body make sure that Vasoactive Intestinal Protein reaches only the target tissue?

Vasoactive Intestinal Protein (VIP) is a 28 amino acid neuropeptide that has several effects in several systems. These include the cardiovascular system, respiratory systerm, urinary system, immune ...
CoffeeIsLife's user avatar
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Why males are more prone to cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks than females?

I often see more people of males undergoing treatment for heart disease. It is often said that female reproductive hormone (oestrogen) has some cardio-protective action by preventing constriction of ...
rahul's user avatar
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Are neurotransmitters part of the endocrine system?

I was speaking with a substitute teacher of mine, and we were discussing whether neurotransmitters are part of the endocrine system or not. My class just spent an entire semester on the topic of the ...
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