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Red blood cells are not equipped with a motor system to propel them through the blood stream. Instead, they are passively transported through the vasculature by the the pumping action of the heart. The effects of dangerous situations on the skin have to do with hormonal effects on the blood vasculature, and not with direct effects on red blood cells. ...


24

Women have erections too! These erections are called clitoral erection. Clitoral erections are usually accompanied with vaginal lubrification. Just like men (see here), the absence of norepinephrine during the REM phase of the sleep causes erections. In women, this phenomenon is called Nocturnal clitoral tumescence while it is called Nocturnal penile ...


14

Yes, they do. The ovaries produce both testosterone and estrogen. Relatively small quantities of testosterone are released into your bloodstream by the ovaries and adrenal glands. Sex hormones are involved in the growth, maintenance, and repair of reproductive tissues [1]. The serum testosterone level in women with no acne, hirsutism, or menstrual ...


13

Isn't it illogical to give more of insulin for a deficit amount of receptors? Seems like there is some confusion in the definition of type-2 DM itself. According to the American Diabetes Association: If you have type 2 diabetes your body does not use insulin properly. This is called insulin resistance. At first, your pancreas makes extra insulin to make ...


12

Short answer People with androgen insensitivity syndrome do not have a functional uterus and cannot bear a child. Background Androgen-insensitive genetic males may develop female genitalia and internal female reproductive organs. However, in both partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) and complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) the uterus is ...


11

In short, because the easiest way to get the protein coding sequence of the gene is to create cDNA based on the mRNA, and insulin mRNA is only expressed in pancreatic cells. Insulin gene consists of two exons. That means, amplifying the genome will not give us a coding sequence -- two pieces of that sequence will be interrupted by a large, non-coding intron....


11

As said by @dblyons, there has not been a lot of research (biochemical) on chameleons. So, the exact part of mechanism that you're looking for is still not understood. However, we have recently caught the broad end of the stick. Chameleons don't have special cells for color, their complete skin has a layer of pigments (dermal iridophores) which helps them in ...


10

Short answer The increased fear responses during the night are believed to be mediated by elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels in the brain that drive the fear responses in the amygdala. Background Fear responses can be experimentally assessed by recording the startle reflex. For example, loud noises can evoke gross startle responses in ...


9

Fetal testis produces testosterone from cholesterol. There is a peak of production around 15 weeks of gestation (the "masculinization programming window"). So the genotype of the fetus can affect testosterone levels directly via effects on the biosynthesis of the hormone, or indirectly by defective regulation of the pathway's activity. However, exposure to ...


9

This is true for the beginning of the disease. As a reaction to the reduced sensitivity of the cells in the body to insulin (and thus less uptake of glucose from the blood and a resulting hyperglycemia) the body produces more and more insulin to cope with this problem. At some point the insulin producing beta cells cannot increase the production anymore and ...


8

Yes, something can be both a hormone and an enzyme. There are a group of hormones known as peptide hormones. These are proteins (such as enzymes) that act as hormones indirectly (and maybe directly too?). A hormone is a chemical secreted by a cell that has some effect on another cell elsewhere in the body. In this case, the chemical just happens to be an ...


8

The quick answer is that only certain cell types express the required steroid hormone receptors that are necessary to induce signaling and gene regulation when bound to their target steroid hormones, like estrogen, testosterone, cortisol, etc. If no receptor is present, the steroid doesn't effect any change. The second part of the answer involves the ...


8

I found a nice article that has insights to this matter. As posted before me it is true that only adults, but not juvenile individuals show this difference. Direct and indirect effects of sex hormones on bone marrow erythropoiesis and renal erythropoietin production has been proven, but it works in both sexes the same way. Females are capable to elevate ...


7

This condition is also known as "lactic acidosis" and can be pretty dangerous, since it influences the pH of the blood. When we metabolize glucose to produce ATP and NADH it is metabolized finally to pyruvate in a process called glyolysis (I am not going into detail here since this is nicely explained in the Wikipedia). Pyruvate can then be used further in ...


7

Human body is a glucose driven machine which intake carbohydrates and converts to glucose. Energy is yielded from the glucose and glucose is stored as glycogen. When the carbohydrate intake is somehow reduced then body will shift its mechanism and uses the fatty acids to produce energy. Liver synthesis ketones from fatty acids in our diet or from body fat. ...


7

Sexual arousal is a very complex response, that includes a whole range of physiological changes, firing of lots of neural pathways, increased muscle tension, elevated heart rate with increased blood flow to the skin, primary and secondary sexual organs and a whole lot of hormonal spikes. Sexual desire is defined as the behavioural drive that motivates ...


7

Short answer Oxytocin release has been associated with the cutaneous low-threshold (CT) afferent fibers in hairy skin. Background Oxytocin is released from the paraventricular nucleus in the brain in response to low intensity stimulation of the skin, such as touch, stroking and warm temperatures. In a recent review Uvnäs-Moberg et al. (2015) report that ...


7

Medical science has reached the point where it is able to consider performing uterine transplants in genetically female (cis-female) patients born without a uterus. In the MedlinePlus report, First Uterus Transplant Planned in U.S. doctors at The Cleveland Clinic have plans to perform the first uterus transplant in the US sometime in 2016. The article does ...


7

Parts of the answer are in the text that you provide yourself. But I shall try to add where i can. What do each of these three terms [hormone, cytokine and protein hormone] mean and how are they different? Both cytokines and hormones are a class of signalling molecules that are secreted by cells. Cytokines are a group of small protein that have a ...


6

I found this - Celec et al. (2003) Circatrigintan cycle of salivary testosterone in human male. Biological Rhythm Research 34: 305-315 Conclusion. We believe that this is the first study demonstrating the existence of circatrigintan and circavigintan rhythms of testosterone in human males. Our findings might have implications in human physiology and ...


6

There are two pieces to this question: a) How does bone resorption (movement of Ca/Phos out of bone into the blood) result in net improvement in bone structure? Bones are constantly remodeling, primarily in response to mechanical stressors. Although you clearly already realize this, I will make it explicit: osteoblasts are the cells that create new bone; ...


6

I did a quick search and found some research in this area. Sleep inertia is the technical term for feeling groggy for a while after waking up. In a review article by Patricia Tassi, Alain Muzet (Sleep inertia. Sleep Medicine Reviews. Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2000, Pages 341–353), they define sleep inertia as Sleep inertia is a transitional state of ...


6

An allergic reaction requiring an epipen can be caused by swelling in the throat and/or bronchoconstriction (spasms decreasing the diameter of bronchioles). Bronchoconstriction can occur in the absence of soft tissue swelling in the lips, tongue and throat, and vs. versa. Epinephrine reduces pharyngeal edema (swelling) because it is a potent vasoconstrictor ...


6

These combination contraceptives contain two substances: Estrogen and progestin (a synthetic progesterone). Both are used together to overcome the negative effects of single substance drugs as acne or sickness. The risk for blood clots has been known for quite a while (see reference 1 and 2) and is generally caused by raised levels of clotting factors (...


6

In short, without direct physical evidence (forensic or medical examination), testimony, or documentation to act as proof, you are left up to the discretion of the court to determine whether evidence is admissible and up to a jury to decide if it is reasonable to presume that a person depicted is of a certain age if no other evidence to the contrary is ...


6

No they are not made of muscles. Glands are modified epithelial tissues. Glands are basically of two types Endocrine and Exocrine glands. Endocrine gland It is a gland that lacks a duct system. The secretions are directly poured into the bloodstream. They secrete hormones through exocytosis mostly. Exocrine gland It is a gland with a duct system. ...


6

Insulin is a "last resort" treatment for people with Type 2 diabetes—partly due to the unpleasantness of injections, but partly due to the fact that high insulin levels can worsen insulin resistance. People with Type 2 diabetes are generally started on Metformin and/or advised on diet and exercise, and progress to other oral medication, before insulin ...


6

Good question! The major and most common endocrine glands in the human body include pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, gonads and pineal gland, along with neuroendocrinol glands like hypothalamus. Some other, not-so-common, examples include heart (Anti-Natriuretic Factor), GI tract organs (gastrin, secretin, etc.), placenta (estrogen,...


5

There is no evidence that postnatal hormone exposure can change the sexual sexual preference of an individual. However atypical hormonal stimulation of the fetus can induce homosexuality. Homosexuality does not develop without a variety of social factors which are up-to-date mostly unexplained. But can develop without hormonal stimulation. As real life ...


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