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13 votes
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Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

Isn't it illogical to give more of insulin for a deficit amount of receptors? Seems like there is some confusion in the definition of type-2 DM itself. According ...
another 'Homo sapien''s user avatar
11 votes
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How do chameleons signal cells to change color?

As said by @dblyons, there has not been a lot of research (biochemical) on chameleons. So, the exact part of mechanism that you're looking for is still not understood. However, we have recently caught ...
another 'Homo sapien''s user avatar
11 votes
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Why do we not develop tolerance to endogenous factors?

Tolerance is just a special case of homeostasis. There definitely is some level of "tolerance" to endogenous substances: down-regulation or desensitization of receptors that are over-...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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10 votes
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Why are fearful stimuli more powerful at night?

Short answer The increased fear responses during the night are believed to be mediated by elevated corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels in the brain that drive the fear responses in the ...
AliceD's user avatar
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9 votes

Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

This is true for the beginning of the disease. As a reaction to the reduced sensitivity of the cells in the body to insulin (and thus less uptake of glucose from the blood and a resulting ...
Chris's user avatar
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8 votes

What is the difference between a cytokine, a hormone and a protein hormone?

Parts of the answer are in the text that you provide yourself. But I shall try to add where i can. What do each of these three terms [hormone, cytokine and protein hormone] mean and how are they ...
Jonas's user avatar
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6 votes
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Are glands in human made up of muscles?

No they are not made of muscles. Glands are modified epithelial tissues. Glands are basically of two types Endocrine and Exocrine glands. Endocrine gland It is a gland that lacks a duct system. ...
Tyto alba's user avatar
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6 votes

Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

Insulin is a "last resort" treatment for people with Type 2 diabetes—partly due to the unpleasantness of injections, but partly due to the fact that high insulin levels can worsen insulin ...
Artelius's user avatar
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6 votes
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Do all organs of our body secrete hormones?

Good question! The major and most common endocrine glands in the human body include pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, gonads and pineal gland, along with neuroendocrinol ...
another 'Homo sapien''s user avatar
6 votes

Steroid hormones: how do they travel through the cytoplasm (not just the blood plasma) if they're hydrophobic?

Firstly not all steroid hormones travel inside the cell and regulate the gene expression. Basically there are two pathways- direct and indirect. Steroid hormones are lipid-soluble, which allows them ...
Ojasvi's user avatar
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6 votes
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Apparent paradox in Glucagon action

Summary The apparent paradox is resolved by the fact that not all tissues possess receptors that cause them to respond to glucagon or, more generally, to the same hormone. Where different tissues do ...
David's user avatar
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5 votes
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What will happen if there is high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH in blood?

Short Answer: quite surprisingly, both will occur. Long Answer: as is quite well known, calcitonin lowers blood Ca2+ levels. It performs this task by two methods: it inhibits the activity of ...
another 'Homo sapien''s user avatar
5 votes

Steroid hormones: how do they travel through the cytoplasm (not just the blood plasma) if they're hydrophobic?

I am not an expert in this area, but found a summary of and illustration from a textbook — Karen Lounsbury, Pharmacology, 2009 — on a Science Direct summary page. Apparently for the glucocorticoid ...
David's user avatar
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4 votes

What is basis of multifunctionality of "master glands" in the endocrine system?

It would seem to me that in the examples that you have listed that proximity to necessary input is the overriding logic behind gland geography. Take the hypothalamus as the first example. This gland ...
kingfishersfire's user avatar
4 votes
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How are Thyroid Stimulating Ab destroying thyroid tissues?

Thyroid stimulating antibodies (sTRAb) don't destroy thyroid tissue. To the contrary, they have a TSH-like effect on thyrocytes and therefore lead to hyperthyroidism and thyroid growth resulting in ...
jwdietrich's user avatar
4 votes
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Is Thyroxine a hormone?

It is necessary to distinguish between classical and non-classical actions of thyroid hormones. Classical action involves nuclear THR (or TR) receptors (TR alpha1, TR beta1, TR beta2). They are ...
jwdietrich's user avatar
4 votes

difference between neurotransmitters and hormones

At heart, the distinction between neurotransmitters and hormones is how they are transmitted - not necessarily a difference in the chemicals themselves. Neurotransmitters are sent over synapses, ...
Jam's user avatar
  • 1,506
4 votes

Is there any way bicondylar/bigonial, bizygomatic or bitemporal breadth can change in adults?

Acromegaly (pituitary gigantism) is a disease that causes enlargement of the bones of the face. There is interest in computerizing facial measurements to catch subtle enlargements and prompt testing ...
Willk's user avatar
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4 votes
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What's the difference between releasing hormones and tropic hormones?

The releasing hormones could also be considered tropic hormones, and indeed they fit the definition as you noticed, but aren't usually named as such. The special thing about the ones your textbook is ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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4 votes
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Can stress and arousal be independent?

Stress response has 2 main components: Quick response, within minutes, is by the Sympathomedullary Pathway (SAM): hypothalamus > sympathetic nervous system > release of adrenaline and noradrenaline ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 8,079
4 votes

Are neurotransmitters part of the endocrine system?

Short answer Synaptic signaling can be seen as a type of paracrine signaling, and is hence not an example of an endocrine system. Background Khan Academy has a nice accessible overview on this ...
AliceD's user avatar
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4 votes
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How does the body make sure that Vasoactive Intestinal Protein reaches only the target tissue?

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) acts in the intestine, brain, kidneys, lungs, heart, blood vessels, etc. (Cardiovasc Res) and its effects all lead to the same goal: to improve the delivery of ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 8,079
4 votes
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What are cells not affected by hormones called?

How about non-target cells? I found several examples of that usage including: A book section titled: 9.3 How are steroid hormone target cells differentiated from non-target cells?1 Containing the ...
tyersome's user avatar
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4 votes

Why do we not develop tolerance to endogenous factors?

@Brian Krause's answer is completely correct. I'm only going to simplify it. Tolerance to drugs develops because the enzymatic pathways (which are already in existence in the body, i.e. "are... ...
anongoodnurse's user avatar
3 votes

What are the differences between Signaler and Primer pheromones?

A good example of a primer and a signaler pheromone could be in the recently discovered pheromone system in pennate diatoms (unicellular algae). When diatoms reach a certain size as a result of ...
oaklander114's user avatar
3 votes
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why a testosterone pill can't be effective?

As stated in the comments by Eliane B., testosterone can actually be administered orally when an undecanoate ester is attached. The reason regular testosterone cannot be adminstered orally is because ...
pbond's user avatar
  • 275
3 votes

Does the effect of light on melatonin release adapts to light level over long periods of time?

This paper, for example, shows that indeed, melatonin is suppressed more in the light after a week of dim light exposure compared to after a week of bright light exposure. However, the authors note ...
Bryan Krause's user avatar
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3 votes
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After hysterectomy does FSH secretion stop?

Strictly defined, a hysterectomy is removal of only the uterus. But sometimes the ovaries are also removed, depending on the reason for the surgery and age of the woman. If the ovaries are also ...
Heidi Engelhardt's user avatar

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