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1

Yes, pathogens have been shown to survive freezing temperatures under ice and still remain potentially dangerous after the melting of ice. This has not only happened for relatively simple molecules such as the ones that viruses are made out of, but it has also even happened with larger pathogens such as bacteria (anthrax outbreak in 2016). Unlike high ...


2

The previous answer from @Ark Lomas is true to the extent that gap-loving refers to preference of an open habitat. It was found that these species e.g. have improved flight abilities and are in general geographically more wide-spread. Here is prove: Ecology of Tropical Butterflies in Rainforest Gaps J. K. Hill, K. C. Hamer, J. Tangah and M. Dawood Oecologia ...


6

I do not believe it will happen. There are multiple roadblocks: First, speciation time is measured in generations, not years. The human generation time is long, the 3000 generations mentioned in another answer for a fish translates to nearly 100,000 years. Are human populations not going to interbreed over a time span that long? Second, the speed of ...


0

As others have noted, the key concept is speciation. Imagine some H. sapiens living on Mars. How are they going to breathe? Presumably we have a nuclear reactor generating power, which in turn is used to make oxygen. What is it breaks down? Those who can tolerate low oxygen levels might do better. Here on Earth we invest a lot of energy in building bones and ...


26

The concept you are referring to is speciation and it has been well studied in a wide variety of different natural organisms. I suppose here we are talking about the biological species concept. The overall answer is yes it is possible, but critically depends on a few different factors. The reality of speciation in the wild is very complex, but these are some ...


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Re: Bryan Krause's comment, measurements per hectare are common. However, if you can just estimate average trees per hectare, then it works out. But it still likely depends on the local climate, ecology etc. It also varies across the life term of the tree. Some estimates have been made, such as in this paper (see Table 4), for Quercus rubra and 2 other ...


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