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At least some plants have cellulases which can be used to cleave primers from mature cellulose chains. Cellulose synthesis requires chain initiation and elongation (the two processes are separate). CesA glucosyltransferase initiates cellulose polymerization using a steroid primer and UDP-glucose. Cellulose synthase utilizes UDP-D-glucose precursors to ...


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While it's difficult to know just what is going wrong in somebody else's laboratory, apparently paradoxical effects like these are unfortunately common in laboratory work. Assuming that these are indeed well-established inhibitors that really should be working, let's consider why they might not be in your hands. The mechanisms of molecular interaction are ...


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Phagocytes don't necessarily need antibodies to recognize intruders, i.e. by presence of non-self sugars. Additionally, phagocytes can aid amplification of effective anti-bodies by presenting degraded pathogens to the adaptive immune-system. I found this concise summary of the innate immune system, that I would strongly recommend to read! Now to your more ...


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