6

I think that you could argue that some prion diseases do form epidemics or outbreaks. In some cases it does appear that people have referred to BSE/vCJD as pandemics. There is even some journalism on the topic, and see also here. Infection by prion from the environment does occur at some rate, and it is true that it is these prions are the more transmissible....


5

There are a few viruses which are around for a long time and have caused recurring episodes of disease. Most of these where not pandemic, which is probably more of a problem for modern times due to fast travel/exchange of people and are also a problem of "modern" cities where many people come together in a limited space. Among theses viruses are: ...


4

The 1890 "Russian Flu" pandemic is now believed to have been caused by one of the common cold Coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43. At the time of historical pandemics, there was no way to identify the infectious agent, though. So connecting the pandemic to the virus is based on descriptions of symptoms, and patterns of which demographic groups were most ...


4

Data are usually binned in broad age groups partly because that's all the detail that's useful in some context, and because access to more detailed data often involves access to strongly controlled, personally identifiable information. This preprint (full disclosure: I'm a co-author) gives information in 2-year bins for COVID in Ontario, e.g. this graph of ...


4

The studies referenced do not have any such specifics about transmission probability. What they observe is that a variant is becoming more common. Modeling the spread gives a different R0 value for the variants vs the reference strains: In line with previous modelling studies, the R0 for VOC-202012/01 was estimated as 75% more transmissible than other ...


3

If we look at web resources, what we will notice is that this ratio is not deployed at the family level but at the population level. In other words, when we look at a population, we can ask: What proportion of these people have the disease? That is the denominator. Taking that group of people, we can then ask: Of those people that have the disease, what ...


3

In addition to the first answer that was posted, I would point out that, like many other coronaviruses, SARS-COV-2 is also an enteric pathogen, capable of primary infection in various GI tissues. To my knowledge, there's no conclusive evidence that an orally transmitted GI infection can cause severe respiratory symptoms (or even occur in the absence of ...


3

Transmission through inanimate objects is referred to as "fomite" transmission. It's really hard to know exactly how important fomites are for a particular illness. There is, however, strong evidence that respiratory viruses can spread via this method. Generally, the emphasis is on how contact with hands can lead to infection when someone touches ...


1

Generally based on (1). To quote the website: The variants that are cause for most concern may: spread more quickly, evade natural or vaccine-related immunity, cause more severe disease, evade detection by available tests, or are less responsive to treatment. If you look at the features they say they look for in variants, the one they mention first is &...


1

Per Wikipedia, typically when one needs a lot of virus, it is grown in a controlled cell environment. This used to be eggs, but is moving toward cell cultures instead. So basically yes, factories full of virus (though more like in nice discrete bioreactors than big Joker-friendly vats). Synthetic vaccines, such as the mRNA vaccines for COVID, do not need ...


1

The terminology really depends on the scientific field. You also have to be aware that sometimes terminology is simplified for the purposes of presenting information to the general public. A droplet can really mean anything from a few micrometers up to several millimeters and it does not necessarily have to be spherical. The key point is that the virus may ...


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