Anatomical terms must be able to fit a wide variety of organisms, from insects to fish, dogs, horses, chimpanzees to humans. That's why the terms are sometimes confusing to people who are thinking only of bipedal humans.
In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper side of animals that typically run fly, swim or crawl in a horizontal position. In vertebrates the ...
The branch of science you are looking for is taxonomy, that is the science of identifying and naming species, and arranging them into a classification.
Modern taxonomy was born from the studies of the Swedish zoologist Carl Linnæus (1707-1778), who first introduced, in his books Systema Naturae (Systems of Nature) and Species Plantarum (Plants Species) the ...
This is actually much more of a lesson in Latin linguistics/grammar.
The root, Lateral, comes ultimately from latus meaning “side" or "flank” in Latin. [Source].
By adding one of these suffixes we instead create an adjective meaning "of the side."
However, the suffixes differ in their inflection (specifically their gender):
Laterale has the neutral, ...
I don't have a definitive answer, but I suspect Hymenoptera is "just a name," albeit a name that has lasted through the phylogenetic nomenclature revolution.
Hymenoptera was erected by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (1758). The description of Hymenoptera (membrane wing; p. 553 [hope your Latin is better than mine]) follows that of ...
Ig stands for immunoglobulin. The isotype names have various origins. This paper provides an interesting story:
Black CA. 1997. A brief history of the discovery of the immunoglobulins and the origin of the modern immunoglobulin nomenclature. Immunol Cell Biol 75:65-68.
A brief summary, in order of characterization and naming:
IgG - named gamma globulin ...
Binomial names often use of greek words. Phyllum means -- as you correctly stated -- "leaf", but is not derived from latin but from the greek φύλλον, 'phyllon'.
By the way, there are also lots of examples where the latin word 'folium' is used. To stick with the genus Acer from your example, there is another species named Acer gracilifolium. So don't be ...
An answer is found at the Wikipedia page for Taipan:
The common name, taipan, was coined by anthropologist Donald Thomson after the word used by the Wik-Mungkan Aboriginal people of central Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia.
This passage is citing Sutton. 1995. Wik Ngathan Dictionary as support. I cannot evaluate the truth in this statement ...
It appears that both naming conventions originate with Galen, the Greek physician, almost 2000 years ago (for example, see: Singer, 1952).
Although the precise motivations behind the naming conventions aren't entirely clear, it seems that the origin of the coracoid naming convention is quite simple: Galen thought it looked specifically like a raven's beak, ...
These are very old names for primate cortical areas, originally from the anatomist Constantin von Economo and also used by von Bonin and Bailey (1947) (where the TEO region name seems to originate).
Like Brodmann areas these regions were defined by cytoarchitecture well before most functions were determined.
I discovered another work that I can access from ...
Although the other 2 answers are accurate and well thought out, I just wanted to answer this with a bit different focused response.
Two things to note:
In general, one should think of flexion as decreasing the angle of a joint (see here, here, here, here, here, here or here for reference). From Saladin's 2015 Anatomy textbook$^1$:
Flexion = a joint ...
If I understand John S. Wilkins' magnificent book on the history of the "species" concept correctly, the basis of biological taxonomy can be traced back to the Aristotelian idea of per genus et differentiam: you can define something as consisting of a general type ("a plant") with a difference ("made of wood") to define an entity ("a tree"), which could then ...
Anatomically speaking, the palate is the roof of the mouth, separating the oral cavity (mouth) from the nasal cavity (inner nose). While the palate may be sensitive to heat and spiciness (via the capsaicin receptor, for example), it does not contain any taste buds, which are located on the tongue, and are part of the taste-sensing system. The other part of ...
Since "meaningfulness" is not listed among the requirements for new names, any author is free in his choice of name derivation. [There are nevertheless some natural restrictions, such that new names are to be treated as Latin irrespective of the etymology and should follow Latin grammar (with botanical nomenclature being much more meticulous in this respect)....
Though a little bit outdated looking this from the university of Sydney is pretty good and searchable.
I find it pretty useful for aiding memorisation or just a quick entertaining read.
Arnold's Glossary of Anatomy - The University of Sydney
Dors/dorsum in Latin simply means "back", and it is rather normal and reasonable to use the equivalent term in English with regard to the extremities (hands and feet), see "back of my hand".
It is medical convention to refer to the non-gripping surfaces of the feet and hands, as well as the upper (towards the brain) surface of the tongue as "dorsal".
A maggot typically feeds on carrion. A maggot is the larva of a fly and usually particular to the larvae of Brachyceran flies, such as houseflies, cheese flies, and blowflies.
Interestingly decomposition from maggots has a lot of use in forensic science as the presence or development of maggots on a corpse can be useful to a forensic entomologists to ...
In addition to the other answer, the following is some historical context on the naming of these genes.
1980 October: Discovery of pair-rule genes in Drosophila.
Nusslein-Volhard C, Wieschaus E. 1980. Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila. Nature 287:795-801.
We have undertaken a systematic search for mutations that affect the ...
According to InterPro, a paired domain is a DNA-binding element consisting of paired N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains, separated by a linker. PAX proteins follow this motif, and as such typically represent a class of helix-turn-helix transcription factors.
Box is the more interesting term here. In genetics, a box can be used to describe any regulatory ...
The original paper from Lederberg from January 1953 (see reference 1) indeed doesn't mention the origin of the name, but the paper in reference 2 does. It says:
The isolation of λ was first reported in 1951 by Esther Lederberg
(119), then a Ph.D. student at the University of Wisconsin, and later
was described, in greater detail, in a 1953 Genetics ...
According to this paper:
From the Latin word vimentum, used to describe arrays of flexible rods,both ordered ones (e.g.,latices,filigres,and wicker-work) and non-ordered ones (e.g.,brushwood).
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a part of the frontal lobe (Fig. 1).
[A part] demarcated from the rest of the organ by a fissure (crack), sulcus (groove), connective tissue or simply by its shape. For example, there are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes of the brain.
The outer or superficial part of an organ ...
The original description of the species was given in 1964 by Llewellyn Ivor Price in:
Price, L. I. (1964). "Sôbre o crânio de um grande crocodilídeo extinto do alto Rio Juruá, Estado do Acre". An. Acad. Brasileira Ciên. 36 (1): 59–66.
As such, it seems plausible that the name means 'crocodile of Moura', Moura referring to Rio do Moura, a river in the ...
This is advice from a website on plants, but its advice is equally valid for plants or animals.
For example, if you wish to discuss several Pinguicula species, do you
call them Pinguiculae or Pinguiculas? The answer is that you can do
neither! Pinguicula is the name of the genus, a single group of plants
which was very carefully named. If you make ...
If in reference to the prehistoric groups of fish of the respective classifications, ostracoderms would have had a bony head much like a shell, and placoderms had articulated plates covering the head/thoracic area. The differences are relatively straightforward, see the wikipedia pages for each:
Just take a look at a potato and observe each of its eyes. You will see that each of them has two parts:
1) An "eyebrow" : this is a vestigial leaf
2) A small bud in the axil of that leaf
Thus, the two of them together form an eye + eyebrow
The eyes are not evenly distributed in a potato plant. One side may have just one or two but the other side will ...
I think the term pre-frontal does not mean anatomically in the front of the frontal lobe of the brain. This is regarded to the history of discovered area , that the choice of the term was based on the prefrontal bone present in most amphibians and reptiles.you can find this in etymology part ▶️enter link description here
Dictionaries are your friend. American heritage says "Greek hudōr, hudat-, water; see wed-1 in the Appendix of Indo-European roots + hodos, way, road." Merriam-Webster says "International Scientific Vocabulary, from Greek hydat-, hydōr water + hodos road"
Monilophytes = Leptosporangiate ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns, marattioid ferns, & ophioglossoid ferns.
According to A Dictionary of Entomology:
Latin, monil = necklace
As for "phyte," I'll quote this Source:
Greek, -phyte = denoting a plant or plantlike organism
So it literally means "necklace plants. "
From Rai & Graham (2010) :