Anatomical terms must be able to fit a wide variety of organisms, from insects to fish, dogs, horses, chimpanzees to humans. That's why the terms are sometimes confusing to people who are thinking only of bipedal humans.
In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper side of animals that typically run fly, swim or crawl in a horizontal position. In vertebrates the ...
Binomial names often use of greek words. Phyllum means -- as you correctly stated -- "leaf", but is not derived from latin but from the greek φύλλον, 'phyllon'.
By the way, there are also lots of examples where the latin word 'folium' is used. To stick with the genus Acer from your example, there is another species named Acer gracilifolium. So don't be ...
Ig stands for immunoglobulin. The isotype names have various origins. This paper provides an interesting story:
Black CA. 1997. A brief history of the discovery of the immunoglobulins and the origin of the modern immunoglobulin nomenclature. Immunol Cell Biol 75:65-68.
A brief summary, in order of characterization and naming:
IgG - named gamma globulin ...
This is actually much more of a lesson in Latin linguistics/grammar.
The root, Lateral, comes ultimately from latus meaning “side" or "flank” in Latin. [Source].
By adding one of these suffixes we instead create an adjective meaning "of the side."
However, the suffixes differ in their inflection (specifically their gender):
Laterale has the neutral, ...
[D]o homeothermic and poikilothermic have the same meaning as endothermic and ectothermic respectively[?]
No. Once you are referring to the source of the heat, while the other time you are referring to whether the internal temperature varies through time.
Source of heat
endo = inside
exo = outside
Variance in internal temperature
Poikilo = varies
It appears that both naming conventions originate with Galen, the Greek physician, almost 2000 years ago (for example, see: Singer, 1952).
Although the precise motivations behind the naming conventions aren't entirely clear, it seems that the origin of the coracoid naming convention is quite simple: Galen thought it looked specifically like a raven's beak, ...
Although the other 2 answers are accurate and well thought out, I just wanted to answer this with a bit different focused response.
Two things to note:
In general, one should think of flexion as decreasing the angle of a joint (see here, here, here, here, here, here or here for reference). From Saladin's 2015 Anatomy textbook$^1$:
Flexion = a joint ...
An answer is found at the Wikipedia page for Taipan:
The common name, taipan, was coined by anthropologist Donald Thomson after the word used by the Wik-Mungkan Aboriginal people of central Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia.
This passage is citing Sutton. 1995. Wik Ngathan Dictionary as support. I cannot evaluate the truth in this statement ...
Besides the etymologic explanation that @aandreev gave, in cell culture this term is commonly used to describe the density of adherent cells and it is used as a measure of their proliferation. It is usually combined with an estimated (or counted) percentage, so 10% confluency means that 10% of the surface the dish or flask used is covered with cells, 100% ...
Receptor tyrosine kinases are proteins which float around in the cellular membrane. Upon binding of their ligand, the dimerize (two units form a dimer). This releases the kinase domains and the proteins start phosphorylating themselves over cross (meaning part a phosphylates part b and vice versa). This looks like in this figure below (from here, it is an ...
The botanic and medical term fistula is directly derived from the latin word fistula meaning tube or pipe.
Both the medical fistula and the fruits of the Cassia fistula tree show phenotypes similar to a tube.
I will spare everyone the medical example picture, but here are the fruit of Cassia fistula, which are sold as "manna":
word-forming element of Greek origin meaning 1. "after, behind; among,
between," 2. "changed, altered," 3. "higher, beyond;" from Greek meta (prep.) "in the midst of; in common with; by means of;
between; in pursuit or quest of; after, next after, behind," in
compounds most often meaning "change" of place, condition, etc. This
is from PIE *...
Anatomically speaking, the palate is the roof of the mouth, separating the oral cavity (mouth) from the nasal cavity (inner nose). While the palate may be sensitive to heat and spiciness (via the capsaicin receptor, for example), it does not contain any taste buds, which are located on the tongue, and are part of the taste-sensing system. The other part of ...
Since "meaningfulness" is not listed among the requirements for new names, any author is free in his choice of name derivation. [There are nevertheless some natural restrictions, such that new names are to be treated as Latin irrespective of the etymology and should follow Latin grammar (with botanical nomenclature being much more meticulous in this respect)....
These are very old names for primate cortical areas, originally from the anatomist Constantin von Economo and also used by von Bonin and Bailey (1947) (where the TEO region name seems to originate).
Like Brodmann areas these regions were defined by cytoarchitecture well before most functions were determined.
I discovered another work that I can access from ...
Though a little bit outdated looking this from the university of Sydney is pretty good and searchable.
I find it pretty useful for aiding memorisation or just a quick entertaining read.
Arnold's Glossary of Anatomy - The University of Sydney
Dors/dorsum in Latin simply means "back", and it is rather normal and reasonable to use the equivalent term in English with regard to the extremities (hands and feet), see "back of my hand".
It is medical convention to refer to the non-gripping surfaces of the feet and hands, as well as the upper (towards the brain) surface of the tongue as "dorsal".
A maggot typically feeds on carrion. A maggot is the larva of a fly and usually particular to the larvae of Brachyceran flies, such as houseflies, cheese flies, and blowflies.
Interestingly decomposition from maggots has a lot of use in forensic science as the presence or development of maggots on a corpse can be useful to a forensic entomologists to ...
In 1877, Lankester proposed in "Notes on the Embryology and Classification of the
Animal Kingdom" division of the group we now call Chordata into three parts:
which is more or less the accepted division today, with Urochorda being called Urochordata now.
In this essay, Lankester says:
The evidence of degeneration is ...
Des Moines University has an overview of medical terminology, for example:
Useful prefixes and suffixes
Word roots for organs
Some general terms
System-specific terms, for example, for circulatory system
The Free Dictionary has a Medical Dictionary, which shows results from various dictionaries with basic etymology included.
Etymonline is a detailed, ...
In addition to the other answer, the following is some historical context on the naming of these genes.
1980 October: Discovery of pair-rule genes in Drosophila.
Nusslein-Volhard C, Wieschaus E. 1980. Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila. Nature 287:795-801.
We have undertaken a systematic search for mutations that affect the ...
According to InterPro, a paired domain is a DNA-binding element consisting of paired N-terminal and C-terminal subdomains, separated by a linker. PAX proteins follow this motif, and as such typically represent a class of helix-turn-helix transcription factors.
Box is the more interesting term here. In genetics, a box can be used to describe any regulatory ...
The original paper from Lederberg from January 1953 (see reference 1) indeed doesn't mention the origin of the name, but the paper in reference 2 does. It says:
The isolation of λ was first reported in 1951 by Esther Lederberg
(119), then a Ph.D. student at the University of Wisconsin, and later
was described, in greater detail, in a 1953 Genetics ...
Saccus simply means sac or bag and is is closed cavity. The lymph nodes develop from the structures, see this image:
Superior cardinal vein (jugular vein)
Jugular lymphatic sacs
Right subclavian vein
Axillary lymphatic sacs
Left brachiocephalic vein
Thoracic duct (bilateral)
Lumbar lymphatic sacs
Iliac lymphatic sacs
The image is taken from this webpage,...
con- (com-) is prefix that usually means "togetherness", joining. Root fluency/fluent comes from latin fluere, to flow.
Source: Google's definitions for con- and fluency (information scraped from OUP).
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a part of the frontal lobe (Fig. 1).
[A part] demarcated from the rest of the organ by a fissure (crack), sulcus (groove), connective tissue or simply by its shape. For example, there are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes of the brain.
The outer or superficial part of an organ ...