5

I don't know of any research about this on tigers or any other terrestrial predators, but this is a well-known phenomenon in "trophy" animals1 (i.e. big game hunted for sport) and wild-caught fish1-4. 1: Allendorf, F. W., & Hard, J. J. (2009). Human-induced evolution caused by unnatural selection through harvest of wild animals. Proceedings of ...


4

Any evolutionary process has two components to it: generation of genetic diversity in a population, and shifts in the distribution of genetic variants under selective pressure. For a virus like SARS-CoV-2, every infection results in a vast amount of replication, some of which will be variants generated through imperfect replication. Thus, the more rapidly ...


4

There are a few advantages to megafauna: they travel large distances and are hence are likely to be able to spread your seeds widely. They also eat large amounts, so can carry a lot of seeds and distribute those around widely. Large fruit capable of being eaten only by the largest fauna might have the seeds survive by not being eaten and destroyed by ...


3

You may be focusing too much on the megafauna. If there are selective advantages to making a big seed, some seeds at least will get bigger and bigger until there is no animal that will disperse them. If you've ever sprouted an avocado seed, its shoot and first leaves grow very high very quickly. Smaller seeds may have more dispersal routes, but if they end ...


2

Yes; she wouldn't necessarily have to be of the same species, but "mitochondrial Eve" must exist. The proof is pretty simple if you assume no one has more than one mother and that some mothers share a mother (and some other reasonable biological assumptions like the finite number of offspring). Consider all living maternal lineages at any slice of ...


2

The term you are looking for is demography - there are literally thousands of papers published on this topic. Each of your topics mentioned has its own models and prevailing theories, so without an exact question it is very hard to answer as to which model you might find best. Having said that there are well established models of things like geometric growth ...


2

RNA viruses, like SARS-CoV-2, influenza, HIV, etc all have high mutation rates caused by an error-prone RNA replicating protein (known as an RNA dependent RNA polymerase or RdRP) that they use to reproduce their RNA genetic component. The error rates are high enough in these viruses that you can say that the virus exists not as a single species, but as ...


1

Setting up the binomial distribution: For generation F1 each parent (F0) has a 50% chance of contribution the chromosome (under your simplified model), i.e. p=0.5, n=46 for the binomial distribution. I assume that when you say the 'normal' range you are looking for the mean +- 1 standard deviation? For p=0.5, n=46: mean=23 with standard deviation=3.39116 ...


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