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Note: This is an answer to the last line of your question. A classical example of animals adapting to the influence of humans on their environment is the adaption of the Peppered Moth. Here is a brief summary: The peppered moth was originally a mostly unpigmented animal (<1800). During the industrial revolution in the southern parts of the UK a lot of ...


24

Many insects (as well as some other animals) have documented resistance to pesticides. For example, the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) can be resistant to multiple insecticides1. In addition, some populations of this cockroach are now repelled by glucose, which leads to them avoiding traps2. References: 1: Fardisi, M., Gondhalekar, A. D., Ashbrook,...


16

Bighorn sheep are developing smaller horns and elephants are becoming tuskless in Africa: The horns of some bighorn sheep are getting smaller, because hunters are picking off the most impressive rams before they reach their breeding peak Elephant poaching, for example, is thought to have led to an increase in the number of tuskless animals in Africa....


12

You might want to look for asymmetric dispersal. Asymmetric dispersal has been found in many freshwater fishes (such as bullhead; Junker 2012), freshwater mussel (Terui et al., 2014) and in marine kelp (bull kelp; Collins et al., 2010). That being said asymmetric dispersal does not mean that dispersal goes exclusively one way. Maybe Blondel et al. (2020) ...


3

Nightingales have adapted to city noises by singing louder. Given that one function of singing is finding a mate there must indeed be a high, direct selection pressure to make oneself heard. Other birds have adapted in a similar fashion, e.g. by singing in a higher pitch, or at different times.


2

Short answer: yes, people have formulated ways to estimate $F_{ST}$ for multiallelic loci, e.g. microsatellites. For a review, see here. Specifically, Nei could define $F_{ST}$ for multiple alleles as $F_{ST} = \frac{(H_t - H_s)}{H_t}$, which is to say the proportion of total heterozygosity that is across rather than within populations. This is agnostic to ...


1

Yes. See for example this article, which describes how some viruses can pick up bits of human DNA. Here's a quote from the article: ...researchers have shown that a large group of viruses, including the influenza viruses and other serious pathogens, steal genetic signals from their hosts to expand their own genomes.


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