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Important notes: I am not going into the ethical aspects of editing/removing CCR5 in human embryos, neither will I discuss potential effects of introducing that mutation into the human population. Both of these are very important issues, but out of the scope for this answer. As of now I'm not aware of any reliable sources of what was actually done in ...


7

First you need to identify your ant, for Czech Ants: http://www.antweb.org/taxonomicPage.do?rank=species&project=czechants&images=true How should I feed and keep an ant queen? Home for Pet Ant, Ant Farm: There are lots of things you can use, for example, a clean transparent glass or plastic jar, or a fish tank of a size which you will decide is ...


6

To choose the right statistical method (it is more than just saying "use the t-test") you need to think about your experiment. A good starting point is this figure from Bitesizebio: There are two relevant articles on that website: Let’s Talk About Stats: Comparing Two Sets of Data Let’s Talk About Stats: Comparing Multiple Datasets Probably also ...


5

I can point to two published papers in which students performed useful experiments. The present study (on the vision of bumble-bees) goes even further, since it was not only performed outside my laboratory (in a Norman church in the southwest of England), but the ‘games’ were themselves devised in collaboration with 25 8- to 10-year-old children. ... They ...


5

Molecular Cloning is updated and in its 4th edition. Every lab used to have it. Its comprehensive, but really no book could be complete.


4

Along with @shigeta's answer, I'd highly recommend Springer/Humana Press's series Methods in Molecular Biology, which started out as just a single collection of protocols (as I recall...) and is now a series of 1208 books, published between 1984 and 2015. There are a ton of protocols available online at places like Springer Protocols and Cold Spring Harbor ...


4

Formation of Okazaki fragments in polyoma DNA synthesis caused by misincorporation of uracil - Brynoff, et.al. Cell; Volume 13, Issue 3, p573–580, March 1978 one of many, but you only need one to disprove your professor. You do not always need to replicate the exact same assays in order to validate a model. Replicate means reproduce the same experimental ...


3

From Biotek I learned the following: Spectral scans of algae cultures demonstrate significant absorbance below 400 nm as well as two distinct absorbance peaks at 440 nm and 675 nm (Figure 1). Cell number determination is most consistent when light scatter is used rather than absorbance by cellular constituents. In order to avoid influence from absorbing ...


3

I cannot more highly recommend Molecular Cloning 4 ed.. It is a really comprehensive text which covers numerous molecular biology experimental techniques including different types of PCR. EDIT: Also, there are some great suggestions for other books and websites that also cover molecular biology techniques in the answers to this question: Short, concise, ...


3

I made a quick sketch on the basis of the information you gave (this is not to scale): Aminoacid 5 (aa5) of the protein is on the outside, aa90 is inside the membrane. What we don't know here where the transmembrane part starts (directly with aa6 or later) and how it is organised (I indicated this as a transmembrane helix, but this can of course be ...


2

Membrane proteins are usually drawn as topological digrams with two parallel horizontal lines representing the membrane. lines as 'extracellular' and below the lines as 'intracellular' for instance, but that is not what is being asked for here. Its not clear to me that the number of transmembrane spans are fully described, nor are the boundaries of the ...


2

You've probably seen the news reports by now, in which researchers targeted and stimulated individual cone cells in the eyes of volunteers: "The elementary representation of spatial and color vision in the human retina" Ramkumar Sabesan, et. al. (2016). This experiment is the first time that researchers have targeted and stimulated individual cone cells. The ...


2

I agree with canadianer that chemical tests are generally more useful for identification. However, morphology does help and some staining techniques can be useful for identification (the Gram stain is the obvious one). If you are looking for a microscope, look for a nice scope with a 100x oil-immersion objective and a 10x ocular lens (12x would be OK too). ...


2

Possibly He Jiankui was using Cas9 without a template DNA. If so, this generates double-stranded breaks that are repaired through processes such as non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) that often produce small indels (deletions and insertions) 1. This is consistent with the apparently random small deletions and insertions around the cut site seen in both ...


2

Restarting electrical activity would mean that at least parts of the brain become active again and possibly restoration of almost all cognitive functions. While this would be a tremendous scientific and medical break-through, it would also mean that effectively locked-in syndrome would have been induced for these pig brains. Therefore just attempting to ...


1

The study {1} was published earlier this month and pointed out some side effects of the CCR5-∆ 32 mutation: Abstract: We use the genotyping and death register information of 409,693 individuals of British ancestry to investigate fitness effects of the CCR5-∆ 32 mutation. We estimate a 21% increase in the all-cause mortality rate in individuals who ...


1

"Are protein A and B co-located?" The answer is that it depends. Since your test question included the word "necessarily", this means that the answer to the test question is no. All you have to do is think of at least one plausible counter-example. Here's a couple: The flourescently tagged constructs were screwed up somehow, so A, B, and each of their ...


1

Googling "landmark experiments in biology" came up with a lot of hits, what was wrong with the experiments cited in any of those works? Mendel's pea experiments should be easy enough to understand. Honestly I don't see how it will benefit you to know the organic chemistry work that went into determining the chemical structure of adenine.


1

I could have found this article earlier, but as things go, I didn't. But possibly it contains most of what can be said to this question: Jonathan E. Peellej, Methodological challenges and solutions in auditory functional magnetic resonance imaging, Front Neurosci. 2014; 8: 253


1

Although this is old news, as @R.M. has been good enough to provide an answer, I feel I should add my own. The reason is not that I think his answer is incorrect in any way — it is technically quite correct and I am not going to repeat or rephrase his technical arguments — but I do not think it addresses what I regard as the misunderstanding in the poster’s ...


1

A katal is indeed a specific amount of enzyme (rather than a reaction rate), but one which is measured with respect to the catalytic activity of the enzyme, rather than with respect to the number of molecules, their weight, or their size. Roughly speaking, one katal is the amount of of enzyme which can convert 1 mole in 1 second. (Just like one pascal is ...


1

Your thought process should revolve around optimal spectrum for photosynthesis, since whether that happens sufficiently will determine the health of your plant. Just poking around, I found this document. What light will be usable for photosynthesis depends on which version of light absorbing protein is being used to capture energy from photons. This ...


1

the pancreatic fluid contains lipase which breaks down the fat in the milk in to fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty acids produce lower and create a more acidic pH.


1

Depending on the detergent, its concentration, and the exact assay being performed, it can affect both the protein and the assay reagent(s). Some detergents will bind the (usually colorimetric) reagent, or otherwise chemically react with it, giving high background to your assay and sometimes completely masking the specific signal of the assay itself. Many ...


1

A good place to begin is with the experiments of Hans Speymann and Hilde Mangold, done in the 1920s. They transplanted a piece of the dorsal lip in a newt gastrual to the ventral side of another newt gastrula with different pigmentation. Because of this transplant, a "secondary" embryo formed, on what would have been the belly, in addition to the standard ...


1

Technology is not advanced enough to achieve receptor-specific stimulation. Regarding your defined needs: 1) Identifying M cones: It is already challenging to distinguish cones from rods in the retina (Turpin et al, 2011), let alone identify the three classes of cones. 2) Your retinal-mosaic image would theoretically be possible, although very small pixels ...


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